Studying materials.

    20200907 moveover
    20201120 overview

Ties to:
    * 🔗architecture
    * 🔗materials-textile
    * 🔗tech-tree (infrastructure)
    * 🔗resources
    * [...] ###

Table of Contents
1 Attributes
2.1 WOOD
2.1.1     * plywood
2.1.2     * OSB (Oriented strand board (OSB)
2.1.3     (also)
2.2.1     * aluminum roofs
2.2.2     * steel beams (I-beams, H-beams, ...)
2.2.3     * steel boards
2.2.4     * copper
2.4.1     animal textiles
2.4.2     plant textiles
2.4.3     cotton / jeans
2.5.1     * polyester 185T / 210T / ...
2.5.2     * "aluminized polyester"
2.5.3     * PE = polyethylene
2.5.4     * nylon
2.5.5     * BoPET / Mylar
2.5.6     (TREATMENTS)
2.7 ROCK
2.7.1     * rock / stone
2.7.2     * marble, granites, etc
2.7.3     * clay
2.8.1     * non-hydraulic cement
2.8.2     * hydraulic cement
2.8.3     * magnesium cement
2.8.4     * concrete
2.8.5     * calcium sulfate
2.9.1     * PVC
2.9.2     * foam 
2.9.3     * polyethylene
2.9.4     * fiberglass
2.9.5     * epoxy
2.10.1     * adobe
2.10.2     * bitumen
2.10.3     * bamboo
2.12.1     * antirust coating / paint
2.12.2     * "truck bedliner paint"
2.12.3     * polyurethene
3.1 * plastic tubes
3.2 * #studio insulation
3.3 * silicone
3.4 * glues / adhesives
3.5 * hot glue gun (on AC)
3.6 * tapes
3.7 * glass
3.8 * paper
3.9 * plaster
3.10 * rammed earth
3.11 * thin film
3.12 * gels
3.13 * coatings
3.14 * steel wool
3.15 * steel mesh
3.16 * roofing
3.17 * PTFE / Teflon
3.18 * putty
3.19 * wd40 (combined delubricant + lubricant)
3.20 * underbody sealant
3.21 * cavity wax
3.22 * grease
3.23 * tar
3.24 * kevlar
3.25 * car wrapping
3.26 * titanium
3.27 * ropes & lines
3.28 * Sandwich panels
3.29 * Beams
3.30 * Paint restorer
3.31 * Car door seals
3.32 * Radiant barrier (like Reflectix)
3.33 * Magnets
3.34 * shrink tube
3.35 * velcro
3.36 * cables
5.1 * Joining
5.2 * Steel bending
5.3 * Cardboard prototyping
6 *** PAD
6.2 ask people for more !!!
6.5 Construction: Joist

    * approx prices
    * heat insulation ("R" value?)
    * ambient:
        * inside/outside
        * water interaction
        * heat resistence
    * toxicity
    * strength:
        * elasticity
        * [....]
    * [...]

    * viscosity
    * [...]



    * plywood

    * OSB (Oriented strand board (OSB)

also known as:
    * flakeboard, sterling board and aspenite in British English)
    * """Oriented strand board (OSB), o tablero de virutas orientadas, es un tipo de tablero conglomerado. Aunque el término apropiado sea simplemente OSB, la importación del anglicismo ha derivado en la popularización —gramaticalmente redundante— del término "tablero OSB".1​"""

Types 1-4 (based on ambient parameters).


    * positioning wood + different cuts
    * strength of pillars
    * [...]


    * aluminum roofs

    * steel beams (I-beams, H-beams, ...)

    * steel boards

* "1mm" enough for welding on car
* [...]

    * copper

* cables

* roofing & architecture

* break lines (also CuNiFer)
    * :
        really nice
    cutting + flaring:
        #trucko adapter size ???
        * tubing cutter
        * double flaring tool
        * adapters aka "break line unions" aka "break line fittings" :
            whole set !
            but would still need to be bent
        * break cleaner
        * [...]
    all break lines
    (have to be bent)

* [...]




MAIN ARTICLE → 🔗materials-textile !!!

Textiles can be made from many materials. These materials come from four main sources: animal (wool, silk), plant (cotton, flax, jute), mineral (asbestos, glass fibre), and synthetic (nylon, polyester, acrylic). In the past, all textiles were made from natural fibres, including plant, animal, and mineral sources. In the 20th century, these were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.

    animal textiles
    * wool
    * silk
    * leather
    * fur
    * [...]

    plant textiles
    * hemp
    * cotton
    * silk
    * flax
    * jute <------ #tocheckout
    * [...]

    cotton / jeans



    * [...]

    * polyester 185T / 210T / ...
    "210T refers to the yarns per square inch in the warp and weft directions."

    * "aluminized polyester"

used on ("aluminised Ripstop polyester")
or for better tarps (~5X more expensive)

    * PE = polyethylene

for floors

    * nylon

supposedly not so good for tents (rain!)

" Polyester rainfly before and after (8 min hosing) - boring but good. By the way, the polyester fabric on this particular prototype didn't have an exterior silicone treatment. It was just polyurethane on the underside. All our current fabrics are sil/pu with silicone on the outside plus polyurethane on the underside. They repel water really well and they don't let it through."

    * BoPET / Mylar

polyester + 

used for:
    * "space [emergency] blankets" (reflects 90% of body heat back)
    * Insulation for houses and tents, reflecting thermal radiation
    * Light insulation for indoor gardening.
    * [...]

    * "4000mm double-coated aqua rating with fire retardant and SPF50 UV coating"
    * [...]


#todo #Ordering #tobuy
"CANVAS" used to be hemp, now is cotton.

* hydrostatic head:

* [...]

POLES designs:
    * foldable fibreglass/aluminium
    * flexible (like one "1 second tents")
    * AIR !!!!!!!!!! <------- #hypertent
    * [...]



[!!!] identification:

[!!!] uses:
    * tactical rocks
    * [...]

    * rock / stone

    * marble, granites, etc

    * clay

### harvesting in the desert


A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together. Cement is seldom used on its own, but rather to bind sand and gravel (aggregate) together
Cements used in construction are usually inorganic, often lime or calcium silicate based, which can be characterized as non-hydraulic or hydraulic respectively, depending on the ability of the cement to set in the presence of water (see hydraulic and non-hydraulic lime plaster). 

    * non-hydraulic cement

Non-hydraulic cement does not set in wet conditions or under water. Rather, it sets as it dries and reacts with carbon dioxide in the air. It is resistant to attack by chemicals after setting. 

    * hydraulic cement

Hydraulic cements (e.g., Portland cement) set and become adhesive due to a chemical reaction between the dry ingredients and water. The chemical reaction results in mineral hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water and safe from chemical attack. This allows setting in wet conditions or under water and further protects the hardened material from chemical attack. The chemical process for hydraulic cement was found by ancient Romans who used volcanic ash (pozzolana) with added lime (calcium oxide). 

    * magnesium cement

    * concrete

Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. In the past, limebased cement binders, such as lime putty, were often used but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement or with Portland cement to form Portland cement concrete (named for its visual resemblance to Portland stone).[2][3] Many other non-cementitious types of concrete exist with other methods of binding aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, which is frequently used for road surfaces, and polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder. 

    * calcium sulfate

* [...]


    * PVC

    * foam 

* spray foam
* polyiso
* [...]

    * polyethylene
* "Poly tanks are made from polyethylene; a UV stabilized, food grade plastic. "
* [...]

    * fiberglass
Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic (GRP),[1] glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP)[2] or GFK (from German: Glasfaserverstärkter Kunststoff).

    * "prepareda" (pre-mixed with "mastic")
    * "resina"

    * is it "food-safe" - what to care for when making water tanks?
    * [...]
"fiberglass dome house"

    * epoxy

esp: "resina"

* used with fiberglassing
* epoxy glues
* [...]


* PIR / polyiso / iso / polyisocyanurate
* hexayurts !:
    see !!!
* [...]

    * adobe

    * bitumen


    * bamboo



* tiles

* glass blowing

* glass cutting !!!

the material itself which has been flattened with a screed (screed coat).[2] In the UK, screed has also come to describe a thin, top layer of material (sand and cement, magnesite or calcium sulphate), poured in site on top of the structural concrete or insulation, on top of which other finishing materials can be applied, or the structural material can be left bare to achieve a raw effect.

* [...]


    * antirust coating / paint

see 🔗trucko

The technical term for Waxoyl and Dinitrol is slushing oils by the way. Slushing oils can be in the form of oils, waxes or greases. Whether they come in the form of an oil, a wax or a grease, the basic petrochemicals used in their formulation are very similar. There are at least another 10 similar rustproofing products to Waxoyl and Dinitrol on the market that can be obtained online or from motor factors.
What's the difference?
Waxoyl is a wax type and Dinitrol is a grease type.  What is the difference?  A wax type has white spirit as the carrier and a grease type has mineral oil as the carrier.  Here are the pros and cons of each type: [...]


* Hammerite Waxoyl

* Dinitrol

* rustoleum
I used several coats of thinned oil based rustoleum paint


* price (difference) ???
* do you use it instead of primers, or over, or what?

* [...]

    * "truck bedliner paint"

* skid resistant
* extra-outside protection

best: "polyurethane"
Aromatic is generally used for black and darker colors, and is the least expensive option. 
Aliphatic can be a better option for colors because its color is more stable over time in ultraviolet light. It is produced with pure polyurethane, which drives up the cost approximately 35%. Aliphatic materials can be sprayed in a wide variety of colors, including metallic finishes. 

can be applied by rollers or spray-on !

    * polyurethene

(via Igor)
"Getting a smooth, blemish-free finish with oil-based polyurethane is within your grasp if you follow the steps in this article. Oil-based polyurethane varnish brings out the wood’s natural beauty or wood grain. Our 4-step approach shows you how to apply the varnish successfully. A good-quality natural-bristle brush, a reasonably dust-free, well ventilated space and some patience are all you need."


vs polyurea ???
Polyurea and polyurethane are copolymers used in the manufacture of spandex, which was invented in 1959. 

Polyurea has become a preferred long term solution for narrow boats. The traditional coating with bitumen, known as "blacking" is being replaced with the practice of polyurea coatings. The clearest advantage is that it is not necessary to reapply a coat every 3–4 years. It is thought that polyurea coatings last 25–30 years.[5]


* block soaps
* sea soap:
* eco soaps:
* kitchen soaps
* [...]


* desinfectants

    * lejia
    * KH-7
    * [...]


aka "food-safe"


* agar
* bamboo
* ceramics (plates, etc)
* inox
* glass
* high-temperature plastics
* [...]

    * how to fix broken ceramics?
    * [...]


* plastic tubes

* for construction:
    (like monkey huts)

* fuel tubes (need to say FUEL or CARBURANTE):
    otherwise they will fuck up your tank - especially if gasoline

* [...]

* #studio insulation

* silicone

A silicone or polysiloxane are polymers made up of siloxane (−R2Si−O−SiR2−, where R = organic group).  They are typically colorless, oils or rubber-like substances.  Silicones are used in sealants, adhesives, lubricants, medicine, cooking utensils, and thermal and electrical insulation. Some common forms include silicone oil, silicone grease, silicone rubber, silicone resin, and silicone caulk.[1][2]


* usually sold in tubes & pushed out by a holder "gun"
* learn to open & close them properly, so they don't dry
* tap with a hammer on start

~25 meters in a single tub:
    ~2.5€ for

normal drying time:
    ~5 hours outside if applied thick

    "glue" types


"self-sealing silicon spray" ?

* glues / adhesives

* instant (usually bad / useless?)

* wood glue

* anti-rat glue

* cola blanco

* spray glue

* [...]

* hot glue gun (on AC)


* "CA - cyanoacrylic - glue better known as super glue."

  1. Splash Adhesive
  2. Fluid Glue
  3. Texture Glue
  4. Twofold Sided Tape
big list

* "gorilla glue gel"
White gorilla glue is my go-to glue for everything. It cures in about an hour and usually stops foaming out in 30 minutes. I'm not sure where you live but if you are in an arid climate, pick up a small spray bottle from a dollar store and use some distilled water. Lightly spray your joint to be glued prior to applying the glue. To prevent the glue from foaming out where you do not want, simply apply tape to that area. You can use painter's tape for this and then remove it later. The foam will give long before the glue does. While this may take longer to dry, keep in mind that if you plan your build well, you can work on other parts while the previous part(s) are drying

* 2-part epoxy

* power tac

* wood glue

* tapes


* "Gaffer tape (also known as gaffer's tape, gaff tape or gaffa tape[1] as well as spike tape for narrow, colored gaffer tape) is a heavy cotton cloth pressure-sensitive tape with strong adhesive and tensile properties. It is widely used in theatre, photography, film, radio and television production, and industrial staging work. "
* duct tape / "american tape" / "cinta americana"
* stage tape

* masking tape / "Canadian tape"

* electrical tape

* glow in the dark tape

* reflective tape

* Kapton tape
Used in electronic manufacturing as an insulation and protection layer on electrostatic sensitive and fragile components. 
Kapton is a polyimide film developed by DuPont in the late 1960s that remains stable across a wide range of temperatures, from −269 to +400 °C (−452 to 752 °F; 4 to 673 K).[1][2] Kapton is used in, among other things, flexible printed circuits (flexible electronics) and space blankets, which are used on spacecraft, satellites, and various space instruments. 

* Sellotape
generic clear home tape

* medical tapes (butterfly closures!)

* speed tape !
Speed tape is an aluminium pressure-sensitive tape used to do minor repairs on aircraft and racing cars. It is used as a temporary repair material until a more permanent repair can be carried out. It has an appearance similar to duct tape, for which it is sometimes mistaken, but its adhesive is capable of sticking on an airplane fuselage or wing at high speeds, hence the name.
#tobuy #trucko #diy

* [...] ###

* glass

cutting: ???

removing scratches: ???

* paper

* plaster

Gypsum Plaster/Powder is a building material used for the protective or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.[1]  In English "plaster"/Powder usually means a material used for the interiors of buildings, while "render" commonly refers to external applications.[2] Another imprecise term used for the material is stucco, which is also often used for plasterwork that is worked in some way to produce relief decoration, rather than flat surfaces. 
The most common types of plaster/Powder mainly contain either gypsum, lime, or cement,[3]  but all work in a similar way.  The plaster is manufactured as a dry powder and is mixed with water to form a stiff but workable paste immediately before it is applied to the surface.  The reaction with water liberates heat through crystallization and the hydrated plaster then hardens.

* casts
* orthopedic casts
* "gypsum"
* "plaster of paris"
* "white cement"
* stucco
* [...]

also see "screed" / "screed boards"

* rammed earth

* thin film

A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness. The controlled synthesis of materials as thin films (a process referred to as deposition) is a fundamental step in many applications. A familiar example is the household mirror, which typically has a thin metal coating on the back of a sheet of glass to form a reflective interface. The process of silvering was once commonly used to produce mirrors, while more recently the metal layer is deposited using techniques such as sputtering. Advances in thin film deposition techniques during the 20th century have enabled a wide range of technological breakthroughs in areas such as magnetic recording media, electronic semiconductor devices, Integrated passive devices, LEDs, optical coatings (such as antireflective coatings), hard coatings on cutting tools, and for both energy generation (e.g. thin-film solar cells) and storage (thin-film batteries). It is also being applied to pharmaceuticals, via thin-film drug delivery. A stack of thin films is called a multilayer. 

* gels


* coatings

* steel wool

useful for closing holes #antipest

not sure if weather resistant

3€ for 300g (~20x100cm)

* steel mesh

useful for:
    * closing holes
    * fencing

* roofing
### !!!
Membrane roofing is a type of roofing system for buildings and tanks. It is used to create a watertight roof covering to protect the interior of a building. Membrane roofs are most commonly made from synthetic rubber, thermoplastic (PVC or similar material), or modified bitumen.

* PTFE / Teflon

don't scratch my pans

* putty

esp "masilla"
Putty is a material with high plasticity, similar in texture to clay or dough, typically used in domestic construction and repair as a sealant or filler. 
* car putty (2-component / "2K")
* wood putty
* [...]

* wd40 (combined delubricant + lubricant)

also "penetrating oil"

Penetrating oil, also known as penetrating fluid, is very low-viscosity oil. It can be used to free rusted mechanical parts (such as nuts and bolts) so that they can be removed, because it can penetrate into the narrow space between the threads of two parts.  It can also be used as a general-purpose lubricant, a cleaner, or a corrosion stopper. Using penetrating fluids as  general-purpose lubricants is not advisable, because such oils are relatively volatile. As a result, much of the penetrating oil will evaporate in a short amount of time, leaving little residual lubricant. 
Other uses include: removing chewing gum and adhesive stickers, lessening friction on metal-stringed musical instruments, various gardening purposes and household repair tasks. 
* use mostly as cleaner

* """I read you can use WD-40 to clean the chain, but then it should immediately be re-lubed with a dry lubricant."""
* do not use as anything but short-term lubricant (evaporates quickly):
    ### how quickly?

* underbody sealant

* cavity wax


    * Dinitorol

self-sealing !
"""Similar to the under-body sealant it has thixotropic properties allowing self healing of small chips and scratches"""


* grease


* lithium grease:
    esp "grasa litia"
* teflon grease:
* [...] ###

    * apply LITTLE or A LOT? (for example, to van doors and rails)
    * what to do about sand (in a desert)? how regularly to clean? how to maintain?
    * what to use for cars?

Tribology is the science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It includes the study and application of the principles of friction, lubrication, and wear. Tribology is highly interdisciplinary. It draws on many academic fields, including physics, chemistry, materials science, mathematics, biology, and engineering. People who work in the field of tribology are referred to as tribologists.[1]

* tar

relation to bitumen?
"i want something that doesn't just cover [the wood] but actually merged/seeps into it"

* kevlar

sails will be kevlar, if "yellowish"
Kevlar is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed by Stephanie Kwolek at DuPont in 1965,[1][2][3] this high-strength material was used first commercially in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as an ingredient in composite material components. 

Kevlar has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to bulletproof vests, because of its high tensile strength-to-weight ratio; by this measure it is five times stronger than steel.[2] It also is used to make modern marching drumheads that withstand high impact.  It is used for mooring lines and other underwater applications. 

* car wrapping

* polymeric PVC
(supposed to be better, but more difficult to work with than)
* cast vinyl
* calendered vinyl

* titanium

high melting point
"For example, its high melting point (1,670℃, much higher than steel alloys) is a challenge."

Titanium: The fast-and-light choice
In 1999, the MSR product catalog declared: “You want light? You want strong? You want Titanium.” Indeed, titanium’s biggest advantage is its ultralight performance. Titanium is 45% lighter than steel and stronger than aluminum. It is the lightest cookware material you can buy before you must sacrifice strength. It’s also corrosion-resistant, offering great durability.
Titanium pots are ideal primarily for boiling water because they can be made with thin walls, and transfer heat very quickly. Like stainless steel pots, they tend to develop hot spots, making them less than ideal for cooking real meals. Titanium is favored by the truly fast-and-light crowd, who count their grams and opt for quick boil-only meals after a long, exhausting day.

real cooking won't work because of "hot spots"
but great for boiling water

over open fire?
"Stainless steel and titanium pots may be used over open fire—with caution. You should expect some soot, and if you place the pot in too hot of an environment, some warping."

do titanium bits have coatings?


titanium in #food ...
"There are no restrictions on the use of titanium dioxide in food products. However, a new study on mice, published in the journal Gut, shows that titanium dioxide particles may be very damaging to the intestines of those with certain inflammatory bowel diseases."

* ropes & lines

    * elastic
    * non-elastic
    * [...] ###

fishing lines:
    * nylon
    * copper
    * [...] ###

??? measuring strength
??? ... by thickness

* Sandwich panels
A sandwich panel is any structure made of three layers: a low-density core, and a thin skin-layer bonded to each side. Sandwich panels are used in applications where a combination of high structural rigidity and low weight is required. 

* Beams
I-beams are usually made of structural steel and are used in construction and civil engineering. 

* Paint restorer

* wood filler

* "T-cut"
T-Cut is a car scratch remover, that is also known as a rubbing or cutting compound. It is used to remove light surface scratches, marks and scuffs, particularly on car paintwork.

* [...]

* Car door seals

different types
~4€/meter @ Lanzarote

* Radiant barrier (like Reflectix)
A radiant barrier is a type of building material that reflects thermal radiation and reduces heat transfer. Because thermal energy is also transferred by conduction and convection, in addition radiation, radiant barriers are often supplemented with thermal insulation that slows down heat transfer by conduction or convection. 
A radiant barrier reflects heat radiation (radiant heat), preventing transfer from one side of the barrier to another due to a reflective, low emittance surface. In building applications, this surface is typically a very thin, mirror-like aluminum foil. The foil may be coated for resistance to the elements or for abrasion resistance. The radiant barrier may be one or two sided. One sided radiant barrier may be attached to insulating materials, such as polyisocyanurate, rigid foam, bubble insulation, or oriented strand board (OSB). Reflective tape can be adhered to strips of radiant barrier to make it a contiguous vapor barrier or, alternatively, radiant barrier can be perforated for vapor transmittance. 
more DIY

* Magnets

* normal
* neodyn

    recycling from speakers/x

* shrink tube


* velcro

    * weight that WIDE velcro can hold
    * [...]

* cables

Cable Insulation
Generally they fall into 5 categories based on thermal rating:

<----------------------------- (new) MATERIALS ↑





various alt-construction ideas:
    * 🔗hacking-housing-pad
    * [...]
Explore Materials by Category

<----------------------------- (new) RESOURCES ↑



* Joining


welding, gluing, binding, ribboting, [...]

* Steel bending


* Cardboard prototyping


<------------------ (new) MATERIAL WORKS ↑

*** PAD


heard about them:
    * kiwi tents (via alen berlin / jana)


ask people for more !!!
    * +fotrmat
    * +tin oversees a rope thread factory line? (also working on PhD in metallurgy)
    * [...]

"autoinsert stock photo" for sure


Have better ideas about pricing
High-Quality Polypropylene Rope - Available in 12 Diameters: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 mm

Construction: Joist

"a length of timber or steel supporting part of the structure of a building, typically arranged in parallel series to support a floor or ceiling."

A joist is a horizontal structural member used in framing to span an open space, often between beams that subsequently transfer loads to vertical members. When incorporated into a floor framing system, joists serve to provide stiffness to the subfloor sheathing, allowing it to function as a horizontal diaphragm. Joists are often doubled or tripled, placed side by side, where conditions warrant, such as where wall partitions require support. 
Joists are either made of wood, engineered wood, or steel, each of which have unique characteristics. Typically, wood joists have the cross section of a plank with the longer faces positioned vertically. However, engineered wood joists may have a cross section resembling the Roman capital letter "I"; these joists are referred to as I-joists. Steel joists can take on various shapes, resembling the Roman capital letters "C", "I", "L" and "S". 



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