< DRAFT++ >

Biting, stinging, parasiting, blood-stucking, skin-burrowing, egg-laying, virus-carrying, zoonotic,  contaminating, toxifying...

    20191109 reorg at cht7a
    20200511 touch 
    20200820 overview
    20201017 ping + new sea biters + parasites reorg
    20230225 (recent work around Cuba)

Ties to:
    ———————— specific

Table of Contents
1.5.1   (species recognition)
1.5.2   (in Canarias)
1.5.3   Culex pipiens ("common house mosquito")
1.5.4   Aedes aegypti ("yellow fever mosquito")
1.5.5   Aedes albopictus ("tiger mosquito")
1.5.6   Anopheles
1.5.7   Anopheles → Plasmodium falciparum→ malaria
1.5.8   mosquitos → chikungunya virus
1.6 Psorophora ciliata (massive)
1.7.1   Black flies (Simuliidae)
1.7.2   Blandford fly (Simulium posticatum)
1.7.3   Biting Midges (GNATS #1)
1.7.4   Horse flies / Deer flies
1.7.5   Tse-Tse fly → Trypanosomiasis
1.7.6   Sand flies (GNATS #2)
1.7.7   Stable fly
1.7.8   flies → mites (vector)
1.7.9   (more/unsorted)
1.7.10   (Flies in Fuerteventura)
1.7.11   OBSERVED: Sand fly? Tse tse fly?
1.8 RINGWORM (fungal)
1.8.1     (general "Dermatophytosis")
1.8.2     dermatophytes → "ringworm"/"tinea"
1.8.3     (general treatment)
1.8.4     cats/dogs → microsporum → microsporosis
1.10 MITES
1.10.1   mite: Scabies
1.10.2   mite: Chiggers
1.10.3   Red mites / Avian mites → Dermanyssus gallinae
1.10.4   mites → Sarcoptic mange (hair/skin disease)
1.10.5   mite: Demodex ("eyelash mites")
1.10.6   mites → Acariasis
1.10.7   Rodent mites
1.10.8   (more mites)
2.1 Wasps
2.2 Mice & Rats
2.3 Ants
2.4 Cats
2.5 Cockroaches
2.6 Termites
2.7 Wood worms
2.8 Ladybugs
3.2 [!!] SKIN/CONTAGION— Candida (fungal) → candidiasis, especially Candida auris
3.3 SKIN/CONTAGION— Streptococcus (bacterial)
3.4 SKIN/CONTAGION— (more: "cysts, lumps and bumps")
3.5 lice/(cats→)fleas/mites → Typhus
3.6 Bacteria → Carrion's Disease
3.7 PINWORMS → itching anus
3.9.1     pork tapeworms → taeniasis & cysticercosis
3.9.2     Brain-Eating Amoeba (N. fowleri)
3.9.3     (Roundworms)
3.9.4     (dog →) D. immitis / D. repens / D. tenuis → (mosquitos → ) dog/cat/~humans
3.9.5     Giardia → diarrhea, etc
3.9.6     Cryptosporidium
3.9.7     T. Vaginalis → trichomoniasis STD
3.9.8     Guinea Worm :-o
3.9.9   (cats → ) Toxoplasma → Toxoplasmosis
3.9.10   @sea → parasites → "Swimmer's itch" / cercarial dermatitis
3.9.11   parasitic flatworms schisotopes → Schistosomiasis
3.9.12   (ocean/water/land) amoeba + contact lenses → acanthamoeba keratitis
3.10 Fasciola Hepatica
3.11 Fasciolopsis buski
3.12 Dracunculiasis
3.13 Bacteria+Amoeba symbiosis in water tanks → Legionnaires' disease (pneumonia)
3.14 Centipedes
3.15 Psocoptera / "psocids / "book lice"
3.16 Pubic lice / crabs (Pthirus pubis) → Pediculosis pubis
3.17 Common carpet beetle → rash
3.18 "SUPERBUGS" (antibiotic-resistant bacteria)
3.19 [M??] Weird small (3mm) biting fly in fuerte ... "black fly"?
3.20 FUNGAL— candida → jock itch
3.21 Clover mites
3.22 "Springtails" / springtail mites
3.23 @sea: Seabather's eruption
3.24 @sea: "Sea sawdust" (Trichodesmium erythraeum)
3.25 _____ NEW / UNSORTED _____
3.26 lone star ticks / red mites? → alpha-gal syndrome
3.27 (Water-contact + mammals→)  Leptospirosis
3.28 (Rodents→) Hantavirus
3.28.1     Cleaning up after rodents (rats)
3.29 COVID-19
3.30 Staphylococcus aureus
3.31 CA-MRSA (resistant Staph)
3.32 (blackflies→) Onchocerca volvulus worms → Onchocerciasis ("river blindness")
3.33 Silverfish
3.34 Campylobacter jejuni (→ food poisoning)
3.35 (@ANTS) ant parasite changing their social status, longevity ...
3.36 Leprosy
3.37 Respiratory syncytial virus
3.38 Black mold (Stachybotrys→mycotoxins)
3.39 ME/CFS
3.40 Meningoencephalitis
3.41 Antibiotic-associated diarrhea
3.42 Perioral dermatitis
3.43 Water contamination (bacteriological, pesticides, pharmaceutical, heavy metals, etc)
3.44 tetanus
3.45 Ticks→ HGA (Anaplasmosis)
3.46 PLANTS— (spotted lanternfly)
3.47 e.coli
3.48 Sand fleas
3.49 Tuberculosis (TBC)
3.50 Fungal meningytis (via fungal spores)
3.51 Fire ants (cuba: santanilla/santanica)
3.52 iron/sulfur bacteria (not problematic)
3.53 (specific mosquitos) → dengue
3.54 Gnats ... @cuba: "jejenes" (GNATS #3)
3.55 Influenza (aka "flu")
3.56 [white rice→] Bacillus cereus
3.57 (general Bacillus)
3.58 Wolbachia (bacteria infecting insects)
3.59 (dogs→) Cystic echinococcosis
3.60 (Mosquito→) Usutu virus
3.61 (Mosquito→) Sindbis virus
3.62 Vibrio vulnificus
3.63 Infectious fungal spores (for lungs)
3.64 (pneumonia causing)
3.65 Clostridium
3.66 Hepatitis C
3.67 (cats/###→) Bartonella → Bartonellosis
3.68 (pigeon shit→) fungal spores → fungal pneumonias, ...
3.69 (...→) Psitaccosis
3.70 Listeria monocytogenes
4 *** ACTION !
4.3 Prevention !
4.4 "How to develop and popularise pervasive and general tests?"
4.5 Identification online
4.6 Identification (by eye & microscope)
4.7 Identification (by bites)
4.8 Handbook for identification of fruitflies
4.9 Trap: bedbugs
4.10 Trap: mice
4.11 Trap: smaller flies (including punkies)
4.12 Using salt?
4.13 [!*!→] MEDICAL— Rehydration (common for viral diseases)
5 *** PAD
5.1 [!] How do hotels prevent bedbugs (etc) ???
5.2 Eradication by genetic-modified sterilized males, etc
5.3 [!!] Get a ultraviolet light
5.4 [!] Antibugs -- Get a electric-zapper
5.5 Raising Cockroaches Intentionally
5.6 REPRESENTATION SYSTEMS -- Ecosystem/ecotype/bio-connectomes
5.7 Research more on "natural enemies"
5.8 Evania appendigaster: Anti-cockroaches wasp
5.9 ECDC : European Center for Disease Control
5.10 ECDC "VectorNet" monitoring tool
5.11 sandboxes (and sand beaches) are disguisting because cats shit in them
5.12 covid pandemic : mink->human vector
5.13 Report: CHT7A situation
5.14 Moths ?
5.15 Zoonosis
5.16 Arbovirus (general term for arthropod-zoonotic diseases)
5.17 Bad for other species (plants, fish, livestock, ...)
5.18 Insects fossils
5.19 flies can spread mites
5.20 g: "bug indentification forum"
5.21 (check if all) more pets→pests zoonosis
5.22 on ivermectin
5.23 Fibiger 1926 Nobel prize for medicine fail : "Roundworms causing cancer"
5.24 BIOWEAPONS/USSR— Biological warfare
5.25 BIOWEAPONS— "Chimera Project"
5.26 WARFARE/BIOWEAPONS— "Entomological warfare"
5.27 BIOWEAPONS— Brucellosis
5.28 Pine processionary
5.29 Antibiotics
5.30 Cronobacter sakazakii (in USA baby formula)
5.32 "Valley fever" (fungal, by Coccidioidomycosis)
5.33 [s!!] great veterinary list
5.34 [!!*] Dengue in Europe
5.35 Helicobacter pylori → stomach cancers



esp: "Pulgas"
slo: "Bolhe"


* Cat flea vs Dog flea vs Human flea

* Dog flea:
    It closely resembles the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, which can live on a wider range of animals and is generally more prevalent worldwide.[1]

* Cat flea:
    """The cat flea affects both the cat and the dog worldwide.[5] The cat flea can also maintain its life cycle on other carnivores and on omnivores, but these are only chosen when more acceptable hosts become unavailable.[4] Adult cat fleas do not willingly leave their hosts, and inter-animal transfer of adult fleas is rare except in animals that share sleeping quarters. A flea which becomes separated from its host will often die within hours from starvation.[6]"""

* Only bite around ankles (?)

* "The bite site has a single puncture point in the center. Bites often appear in clusters or small rows and can remain inflamed for up to several weeks. "

* """This species bites many species of mammals and birds, including domesticated ones. It has been found on dogs and wild canids, monkeys in captivity, opossums, domestic cats, wild felids in captivity, chickens, black rats and Norwegian rats, wild rodents, pigs, free-tailed bats, and other species. It can also be an intermediate host for the flea tapeworm cestode Dipylidium caninum
Fleas can spread rapidly and move between areas to include eyebrows, eyelashes, and pubic regions. """



aka bedbugs

esp: "Chinche (de las camas)"
lat: Cimicidae
slo: "Stenice"


best resources:
    * https://www.reddit.com/r/Bedbugs (sticky posts!!)
    * http://www.bedbug-answers.com/signs-of-bed-bugs.html?fbclid=IwAR2FAfqkJzmsS60oVL3f8HpCmnmO5lhwufAMImMM-idfZrokCkEkI-Zu5YQ
    * ID + common misidentifications:
        book lice nymphs :p
    * [...]


* Can you starve them out?

"Newly hatched nymphs must consume a blood meal within two to three days or will die of starvation, whereas an adult can live for as long as six months between feedings.[7]"

"In some studies, bed bugs have been documented to live for up to 18 months without feeding. In other studies, they’ve lasted only 4-6 months."

* They only feed at night !

* Natural remedies:
    * Tea tree oil
    * Lavender
    * [...]

* Eliminate:
    * Freezing the bedding, pillow and bed covers in extreme cold for 48 to 72 hours can help eliminate these pests.
    * Professional bed bug exterminators use:
        * carbon dioxide under pressure to immediately eliminate bed bugs and their eggs
    * Steam heating is another effective method


* they leave bloodstains on the sheets !

* "While visiting, sit on a non-upholstered chair if possible, such as a wooden dining chair. Bed bugs often hide inside couches."

* "Bedbugs don’t live on people permanently like lice"


* use mattress encasements !


>pau #hypertextile
what are they made out of ?


"""Bed bugs can survive for a long time without oxygen. When inside a completely airtight container, they can live for up to 5 days. And of course, if there’s even the smallest hole in the container, this will provide them with enough air to live on."""

"""Groups of tiny dark spots that smear when they are wiped with a wet rag. This is bed bug fecal matter and is generally dark brown or black in color."""


* good resource:

* good photos for identification on mattresses:

    Bed Bug Detection: Current Technologies and Future Directions

good article on where they come from - GUANO MINING !
Since then, one or two other bedbug species have switched to human hosts, Reinhardt says. For example, his research on Hopi legends has convinced him that a bedbug known to infect eagles also started to feed on humans. And the human-loving bedbug Leptocimex boueti, which also enjoys bat blood and likely had that mammal as its first host, may have switched to people as global guano mining increased

good overal view


Cimex lectularius is a species of Cimicidae (bed bugs). Its primary hosts are humans, and it is one of the world's major "nuisance pests". 


esp: "Piojos & Liendres"
slo: "Uši & Gnide"


* live on people permanently

body lice, head lice



* get a special comb (metallic)

* repel with tea tree oil

with d experience post 35c3


esp: "Garrapatas"
slo: "Klopi"
lat: "Ixodoidea"


#tomerge [!!*]

* https://www.sos-klop.si/klopi-v-sloveniji [SLO]
* ###


    * Similar to ticks:
        #tomerge → 🔗antiticks
    * https://www.mosquitomagnet.com/articles/10-scents-that-repel-mosquitoes
    * some edible herbs on window sills
    * window or bed nets

    * do not scratch!
    * any kind of cream helps:
        aloe & calendula works


  (in Canarias)

notes on mosquito fauna in Fuerteventura (1980)

The Culicidae fauna of the Canary Islands comprises a total of 11 species

ABSTRACT. The Culicidae fauna of the Canary Islands comprises a total of 11 
species: Aedes (Ooh.) oaspius (Pallas), Aedes (Fin.) eatoni (Edwards), 
Anopheles (Cel.) hispaniola (Theobald), Anopheles (Cel.) multicolor Cambouliu, 
Anopheles (Cel.) sevgentii (Theobald), Culiseta (All.) longiaveolata (Macquart), 
Culex (Mai.) avbieeni Salem, Culex (Mai.) hortensis Ficalbi, Culex (Cux.) 
latioinctus Edwards, Culex (Cux.) pipiens Linn., and Culex (Cux.) theileri 

The records for two species are considered to be doubtful, namely, Aedes 
(Ooh.) detritus (Haliday) and Culiseta (Cus.) annulata (Schrank), ^\\^^e Aedes 
(Stg.) aegypti (L.) has been eradicated. 

BOLD = marked for Lanza/Fuerte

  Culex pipiens ("common house mosquito")


    west nile fever

  Aedes aegypti ("yellow fever mosquito")

brought to Fuerteventura : 2018-2019
supposedly eradicated !

    black+white stripes


    * zika
    * yellow fever
    * dengue !

erradicated ?

    * https://www.cleaningcommunity.net/fuerteventura-health-chefs-step-up-action-against-aedes-aegypti/ !!!
    * https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/news-events/new-settlements-aedes-aegypti-raising-concerns-continental-eu
    * http://www.cresa.cat/blogs/sociedad/en/aedes-aegypti-detectat-a-fuerteventura-illes-canaries/
    * [...]

    * https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322208539_Identificacion_del_mosquito_Aedes_aegypti_en_Fuerteventura_Evaluacion_rapida_de_riesgo
    * [...]

The importance of citizens partecipation is also being stressed and if anyone spots what they think is one of the mosquitos, they are being urged to send details and even photos to the health department or through the app Mosquito Alert mobile app.
They can also send photos of stings that they consider suspicious because of the strong inflammatory reaction accompanied by great stinging.
Whenever photos of specimen or suspicious bites are sent, it is essential to clearly indicate the geographical area where the mosquito was detected or the suspicious bite occurred.

  Aedes albopictus ("tiger mosquito")


This mosquito species is a known vector of chikungunya virus, dengue virus and dirofilariasis.



"most well known", for being the main Malaria vector

Adults of Anopheles atroparvus are almost impossible to distinguish from other sibling species of the Anopheles maculipennis complex and are most easily identified morphologically by examining their eggs

    * malaria:
    * elephantiasis:
        """The An. gambiae mosquito additionally transmits Wuchereria bancrofti which causes Lymphatic philariasis, more commonly known as elephantiasis"""

    """The mechanism of species recognition appears to be sounds emitted by the wings and identified by Johnston's organ.[10]"""
    !!! #project #mobile.server
    constant environment sound-ID

  Anopheles → Plasmodium falciparum→ malaria

Some mosquitoes carry this parasite, which causes malaria. The disease kills more people than any other of its kind. It feels like the flu, and it causes body chills, fever, and sometimes nausea or vomiting. A doctor has to look at someone's blood under a microscope to tell if they have it. Early treatment is best. Certain prescription drugs can cure most types.


  mosquitos → chikungunya virus


In 2006, around 38% of the population of the French island La Reunion was infected. Unusually, during this epidemic, few asymptomatic infections and a relatively high mortality rate were observed, most likely due to the lack of prior population immunity. Fears have grown for outbreaks of CHIKV and other arboviral diseases in America and Europe following identification of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) as the major vector.
The first transmission within continental Europe was reported from north-eastern Italy in August 2007. Every year, imported cases among tourists are identified in several European countries. An outbreak of Chikungunya in the Caribbean region was reported from the French part of the island of Saint Martin on 6 December 2013. Since then, autochthonous transmission of chikungunya has been reported from several islands in the Caribbean and recently for the first time in South America (French Guiana). More recently, three cases of infection with Chikungunya virus have been detected in Catalonia in eight persons who had recently traveled to Caribbean countries where the disease is endemic.

Chikungunya is an infection caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV).[5][3] Symptoms include fever and joint pains.[2] These typically occur two to twelve days after exposure.[3] Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, and a rash.[2] Symptoms usually improve within a week; however, occasionally the joint pain  may last for months or years.[2][6] The risk of death is around 1 in 1,000.[4] The very young, old, and those with other health problems are at risk of more severe disease.[2]
The virus is spread between people by two types of mosquitos: Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti.[3] They mainly bite during the day.[7] The virus may circulate within a number of animals including birds and rodents.[3] Diagnosis is by either testing the blood for the virus's RNA or antibodies to the virus.[3] The symptoms can be mistaken for those of dengue fever and Zika fever.[3] It is believed most people become immune after a single infection.[2]
Around 85% of people infected with Chikungunya virus experience symptoms, typically beginning with a sudden high fever above 39 °C (102 °F).[10] The fever is soon followed by severe muscle and joint pain.[11] Pain usually affects multiple joints in the arms and legs, and is symmetric – i.e. if one elbow is affected, the other is as well
Many people continue to have symptoms after the "acute phase" resolves, termed the "post-acute phase" for symptoms lasting three weeks to three months, and the "chronic stage" for symptoms lasting longer than three months.[11] In both cases, the lasting symptoms tend to be joint pains: arthritis, tenosynovitis, and/or bursitis.[11] If the affected person had pre-existing joint issues, these tend to worsen.[11] Overuse of a joint can result in painful swelling, stiffness, nerve damage, and neuropathic pain.[11] Typically the joint pain improves with time; however, the chronic stage can last anywhere from a few months to several years


20231010: Discovered in Trieste (Italy/Slovenia)

Psorophora ciliata (massive)

Not only are these mosquitoes aggressive towards humans and other animals as adults, but P. ciliata larvae are known for preying on other mosquito species' larvae and even tadpoles.[1] Campos, Fernandez, and Sy found in their 2004 study that P. ciliata were frequent predators to the mosquito species Ochlerotatus albifasciatus in Buenos Aires, Argentina and impact the populations of O. albifasciatus.[5] Females are aggressive, preferring to feed on large mammals,[2] and are most active during spring and summer in woodlands or fields during the day or night.[3] They lay eggs either as single eggs on moist soil, or as an egg raft on top of ephemeral pools of water. Typically, females in the genus are capable of laying their eggs on dry or damp land to hatch months or years later, depending on the species.[4]


* flies do not grow in size! smaller / bigger flies are just different species.
* can lay eggs into infested wounds

    * https://www.healthline.com/health/fly-bites#pictures
    * http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pcbitingflies.htm
    * [...]

  Black flies (Simuliidae)


"is any member of the family Simuliidae of the Culicomorpha infraorder"

Bite for blood during daylight:
"""They are usually small, black or gray, with short legs, and antennae. They are a common nuisance for humans, and many U.S. states have programs to suppress the black fly population
Only four genera in the family Simuliidae, Simulium, Prosimulium, Austrosimulium, and Cnephia, contain species that feed on people, though other species prefer to feed on other mammals or on birds. Simulium, the type genus, is the most widespread and is a vector for several diseases, including river blindness. 
Biting flies feed during daylight hours only and
tend to zero in on areas of thinner skin, such as the nape of the neck or ears and ankles. 

They spread several diseases, including river blindness in Africa (Simulium damnosum and S. neavei) and the Americas (S. callidum and S. metallicum in Central America, S. ochraceum in Central and South America). 


... is this biting behind the ears???

  Biting Midges (GNATS #1)


Ceratopogonidae is a family of flies commonly known as no-see-ums, or biting midges, generally 1–3 mm in length. The family includes more than 5,000 species,[1]  distributed worldwide, apart from the Antarctic and the Arctic. 

merge in !!!




https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-5-147 !!!
Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV) that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD), Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences

Bluetonge virus:
    """Bluetongue disease is a noncontagious, insect-borne, viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep and less frequently cattle,[1] goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope. It is caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV).  The virus is transmitted by the midges Culicoides imicola, Culicoides variipennis, and other culicoids."""

Photos !

  Tse-Tse fly → Trypanosomiasis


What are the signs and symptoms of East African trypanosomiasis? A bite by the tsetse fly is often painful and can develop into a red sore, also called a chancre. Fever, severe headaches, irritability, extreme fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and aching muscles and joints are common symptoms of sleeping sickness.


merge in !!!



destroying with irradiation + release

what. they love blue !
"""The blue material catches the flies' interest. As the tsetses circle the blue cloth, mesmerized, they hit the poisoned netting, which they can't see. The insecticide kills them within three minutes."""

  Sand flies (GNATS #2)


Totally confused vocabulary:
In the United States, sandfly may refer to certain horse flies that are also known as "greenheads" (family Tabanidae), or to members of the family Ceratopogonidae. Outside the United States, sandfly may refer to members of the subfamily Phlebotominae within the Psychodidae. Biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) are sometimes called sandflies or no-see-ums (no-see-em, noseeum). New Zealand sandflies are in the genus Austrosimulium, a type of black fly.[1]


merge in !!!



g: "sandfly canary islands"

Lutzomyia sand flies also serve as vectors for the bacterial Carrion's disease and a number of arboviruses.[1]

"Among the viruses that sandflies can carry is the Chandipura virus, which, as a cousin of rabies, is very deadly. There was an outbreak in India in 2010. "




leishmania in lanzarote ?!
No specimen of the Phlebotomus genus was captured and given that none of the species captured has been demonstrated vectors of human pathogenic Leishmania and considering that they were captured in low frequency and density, it can be concluded that the current leishmaniasis transmission risk is null.
OK good.

  flies → mites (vector)

    * https://bugguide.net/node/view/16764
    * CHT microscopy ~ 2020/04

    * how to ID the mites
    * how to do it at scale? (#monitoring)
    * [...]

  (Flies in Fuerteventura)

"""Most of them don't actually bite - just one or two types that do, but that doesn't help much if you've got some biters round you."""

  OBSERVED: Sand fly? Tse tse fly?

Got 3, made good microscope photos from today (2020/04/11).

Looks a bit like this but not?

Circles around me, but does not really seem to land?


RINGWORM (fungal)

    (general "Dermatophytosis")

esp: "Dermatofitosis / tiñas"
slo: "Glivične kožne bolezni / kožne mikoze"



Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm,

Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.[2] Typically it results in a red, itchy, scaly, circular rash.[1] Hair loss may occur in the area affected.[1] Symptoms begin four to fourteen days after exposure.[1] Multiple areas can be affected at a given time.[4]
About 40 types of fungi can cause ringworm.[2] They are typically of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, or Epidermophyton type.[2] 


    "Are among the most common skin diseases and are becoming ever more common because of growing use of wide-spectrum antibiotics."
    via https://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glivi%C4%8Dne_ko%C5%BEne_bolezni (SLO)

Highly contagious:
    * skin-to-skin contact
    * sharing towels:
        (and ... people washing towels at 40°C ...)
    * [...]

    dermatophytes → "ringworm"/"tinea"

Dermatophytes produce an infection commonly known as ringworm or tinea.  It can appear as "jock itch" in the groin or inner thighs (tinea cruris); on the scalp and hair (tinea capitis) resulting in brittle hair shafts that fall out easily.
Tinea unguium affects the nails and athlete's foot (tinea pedis) affects the feet.
Tinea versicolor refers to a fungal infection of the skin caused by Malassezia furfur. It appears anywhere on the skin and produces red or gray, scaly patches of itchy skin. Deeper infections may be discoloured, ulcerative and purulent. 

(==spotted skin)
via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malassezia_furfur
It is associated with a variety of dermatological conditions caused by fungal infections, notably seborrhoeic dermatitis and tinea versicolor. As an opportunistic pathogen, it has further been associated with dandruff, malassezia folliculitis, pityriasis versicolor (alba), and malassezia intertrigo,[1] as well as catheter-related fungemia and pneumonia in patients receiving hematopoietic transplants. The fungus can also affect other animals, including dogs. 

Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium,[4] is a fungal infection of the nail.[2] Symptoms may include white or yellow nail discoloration, thickening of the nail, and separation of the nail from the nail bed.[2][3] Toenails or fingernails may be affected, but it is more common for toenails
Onychomycosis occurs in about 10 percent of the adult population,[2] with older people more frequently affected.[2] Males are affected more often than females.
Dermatophytids are fungus-free skin lesions that sometimes form as a result of a fungus infection in another part of the body. This could take the form of a rash or itch in an area of the body that is not infected with the fungus. Dermatophytids can be thought of as an allergic reaction to the fungus. 
Tea tree oil is not recommended as a treatment, since it is not effective and can irritate the surrounding skin.[35]

    (general treatment)

* apple cider vinegar (strong antifungal properties)

Topical application of antifungal medications such as azole antimycotics, ciclopirox olamine, piroctone-olamine, zinc pyrithione, or sulfur compounds are commonly prescribed to treat diseases caused by Malassezia furfur.[5]

Research suggests that fungi are sensitive to heat, typically 40–60 °C (104–140 °F). The basis of laser treatment is to try to heat the nail bed to these temperatures in order to disrupt fungal growth.[42] As of 2013 research into laser treatment seems promising.[2] There is also ongoing development in photodynamic therapy, which uses laser or LED light to activate photosensitisers that eradicate fungi.[43]

    cats/dogs → microsporum → microsporosis
(SLO): https://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikrosporija / mikrosporoza
(DE): https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikrosporie

Many can be gotten from pets, like Microspirosis
Bolezen pogosto povzroča Microsporum canis in se na ljudi po navadi prenese z mačk, redkeje s psov. Redkejša povzročitelja mokrosporije sta M. gypseum (zoofilni dermatofit) in M. audouinii (antropofilni dermatofit). Vir okužbe so najpogosteje živali v okolici, obolevajo zlasti šolski otroci. Pogostejša je pri ženskem spolu ter od julija do oktobra. 

Microsporosis in the cats (less frequently in dogs) manifests in one or more areas of alopecia or without hair on the animal's body. These changes to the skin can be substantially round, oval or irregularly shaped.
There are two forms Microsporosis in humans, depending on the location:
If the infected scalp hair in these places waste in circles or oval surfaces and has a height of two to four millimeters above the skin.
In the case of contamination of other parts of the body there are changes in the skin in the form of circles with a raised edge in red, while the interior of the circle normal color (in the image). Also, there is also fine scaling in the middle rounds as possible are less crusting. Changes may be accompanied by moderate or intense itching.


Microsporum canis has been identified as a causal agent of a ringworm infection in pets, tinea capitis and tinea corporis in humans, children in particular. [...] Microsporum canis produces infections of scalp and body sites, creating highly inflammatory lesions associated with hair loss.[3] Infection by this species can often be detected clinically using Wood's lamp, which causes infected tissues to fluoresce bright green

Tinea corporis is a fungal infection of the body, similar to other forms of tinea. Specifically, it is a type of dermatophytosis (or ringworm) that appears on the arms and legs, especially on glabrous skin; however, it may occur on any superficial part of the body. 
It may have a variety of appearances; most easily identifiable are the enlarging raised red rings with a central area of clearing (ringworm).[3]  The same appearances of ringworm may also occur on the scalp (tinea capitis), beard area (tinea barbae) or the groin (tinea cruris, known as jock itch or dhobi itch).
Other classic features of tinea corporis include: 
  • Itching occurs on infected area.
  • The edge of the rash appears elevated and is scaly to touch.
  • Sometimes the skin surrounding the rash may be dry and flaky.
  • Almost invariably, there will be hair loss in areas of the infection.[4]
The disease can also be acquired by person-to-person transfer usually via direct skin contact with an infected individual.[3] Animal-to-human transmission is also common. Ringworm commonly occurs on pets (dogs, cats) and the fungus can be acquired while petting or grooming an animal. Ringworm can also be acquired from other animals such as horses, pigs, ferrets and cows. The fungus can also be spread by touching inanimate objects like personal care products, bed linen, combs, athletic gear, or hair brushes contaminated by an affected person.[3]

Superficial scrapes of skin examined underneath a microscope may reveal the presence of a fungus. This is done by utilizing a diagnostic method called KOH test
The KOH Test for Candida albicans, also known as a potassium hydroxide preparation or KOH prep, is a quick, inexpensive fungal test to differentiate dermatophytes and Candida albicans symptoms from other skin disorders like psoriasis and eczema.[1]
The KOH prep cannot identify the specific organism; the specimen can be submitted for fungal culture to identify the organism.

Microsporidian infections of humans sometimes cause a disease called microsporidiosis. At least 14 microsporidian species, spread across eight genera, have been recognized as human pathogens. These include Trachipleistophora hominis.[24]

Microsporum canis infections can be easily managed by topical antifungal agents; however severe cases may necessitate systemic therapy with griseofulvin, itraconazole or terbinafine.[1][9] Treatment of human cases also requires the identification and elimination of the infectious reservoir, which typically involves the investigation and treatment of colonized animals and the elimination of infected bedding and other environmental reservoirs.[10]


Tinea microsporica

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a species of the order Chytridiopsida (in the division Microsporidia) which infects the intestinal epithelial cells. It is an obligate intracellular parasite.[1]
Study and detection methods
Light microscopy of stained clinical smears, especially of fecal samples, is used to diagnose microsporidia infections.. Transmission electron microscopy is required to differentiate between species of microsporidia, but it is time consuming and expensive. Immunofluorescence Assays using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are used, and PCR has recently been employed for E. bieneusi (CDC). 
Enerocytozoon bieneusi is transported through environment resistant spores. 
Common environmental sources of E. bieneusi include ditch and other surface waters, and several species of microsporidia can be isolated from such sources indicating that the disease may be waterborne. [...] there seem to be a close relationship between E. bieneusi strains from humans and pigs, suggesting the absence of transmission barrier between pigs and humans for this parasite (Rinder et al. 2000). 
PCR analysis in Czech Republic revealed existence of E. bieneusi in 94% of the samples indicating the large presence of E. bieneusi in swine, and that they may be naturally occurring (Sak et al. 2008). 
Moreover, these pigs can serve as zoonotic reservoirs for E. bieneusi, making transmission to other animals and humans possible. Since the transmission from swine to other humans and animals is not studied yet, this may cause a major impact on the health of this country


(general family, about 10% infect humans)


There's many different kinds.

They're tiny, often misdiagenosed, and currently underestimated.


nice starter faq ;-)

  mite: Scabies

esp: "Sarna"
slo: "Garje", "Srbečica"


The eight-legged mite that causes scabies in humans is microscopic. The female mite burrows just beneath your skin and makes a tunnel where it deposits eggs."
The eggs hatch, and the mite larvae work their way to the surface of your skin, where they mature and can spread to other areas of your skin or to the skin of other people. The itching of scabies results from your body's allergic reaction to the mites, their eggs and their waste.



ID photos

info + q&a

info, spots, 


Scabies, also known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.[3][1] The most common symptoms are severe itchiness and a pimple-like rash.[2] Occasionally, tiny burrows may be seen in the skin.[2] In a first-ever infection a person will usually develop symptoms in between two and six weeks.[2] During a second infection symptoms may begin in as little as 24 hours.[2] These symptoms can be present across most of the body or just certain areas such as the wrists, between fingers, or along the waistline.




"The burrow tracks are often linear, to the point that a neat "line" of four or more closely placed and equally developed mosquito-like "bites" is almost diagnostic of the disease"

    A) To detect the burrow, the suspected area is rubbed with ink from a fountain pen or a topical tetracycline solution, which glows under a special light. The skin is then wiped with an alcohol pad. If the person is infected with scabies, the characteristic zigzag or S pattern of the burrow will appear across the skin; however, interpreting this test may be difficult, as the burrows are scarce and may be obscured by scratch marks.[11]
        what fountain pen?
        how can this be improvised?
        * https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3222761/ :
            → "Detection of scabies: A systematic review of diagnostic methods"
        * [...]

    B) A definitive diagnosis is made by finding either the scabies mites or their eggs and fecal pellets.

In humans, the symptoms of scabies infestations can mimic other dermatological skin diseases, and traditional tests to diagnose scabies are less than 50% accurate. To aid early identification of disease and thus treatment, a simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific test for routine diagnosis of active scabies is essential. Recent

often atypical:

forming papules and nodules


"Classic and Non-classic (Surrepticius) Scabies: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations"


    """About 1–10% of the global population is estimated to be infected with scabies, but in certain populations, the infection rate may be as high as 50–80%."""


Number + "Crusted scabies" ("norwegian scabies") variant

Normally, someone with scabies has about 10 to 15 mites.
In contrast, someone with crusted scabies may be infested with millions of mites.



"""The mite does not live for more than 3 days away from  human skin"""

    * underwater?
    * in salt? https://patient.info/forums/discuss/i-was-very-happy-to-find-that-common-table-salt-in-a-war--3361
    * essential oils: [...]
    * [...]

  mite: Chiggers

horrible little red shits.
they spread typhus as well.



"""The Trombiculidae (/trɒmbɪˈkjuːlɪdiː/; also called berry bugs, harvest mites, red bugs, scrub-itch mites, and aoutas) are a family of mites.[3] The best known of the Trombiculidae are chiggers. The two widely recognized definitions of "chigger" are the scientific (or taxonomic) and the common, the latter of which can be found in English and medical[4] dictionaries"""

They do not actually "bite", but instead form a hole in the skin called a stylostome and chew up tiny parts of the inner skin, thus causing severe irritation and swelling. The severe itching is accompanied by red, pimple-like bumps (papules) or hives and skin rash or lesions on a sun-exposed area. For humans, itching usually occurs after the larvae detach from the skin.

  Red mites / Avian mites → Dermanyssus gallinae

    """Red mite, bird mite, poultry mite, red poultry mite, roost mite, chicken mite, pigeon mite"""

ESP: "acaros rojos"

They are tiny!

Dermanyssus gallinae (also known as the red mite) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. It has been implicated as a vector of several major pathogenic diseases.[1] Despite its common names, it has a wide range of hosts including several species of wild birds and mammals, including humans.[2][3] In both size and appearance, it resembles the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum.[4]

* associated with hens, but can produce human infestations
* """In humans, D. gallinae infestations are known as gamasoidosis or dermanyssosis.[21] The mites are capable of digesting[22] and reproducing entirely on human blood, so infestations can be persistent.[3] Due to the nocturnal feeding habits of D. gallinae, infested people may experience itching and notice bites when they wake up in the morning.[23] The severity of symptoms vary, with dermatitis,[24] pruritus and papular urticaria being common.[21]"""
* """can survive for up to 10 months in an empty hen house, temperatures greater than 45 °C/113 °F and less than -20 °C/-4 °F, have been found to be lethal.[11]"""
* [...]


lol #antipest literature ...
"""Jane Ishka recited her experience with a human D. gallinae infestation in her book The Year of the Mite.[29]"""


??? This spanish article connects Red mites to Alpha-gal allergy.
Usually it's associated with tick bites !


Gamasoidosis or dermanyssosis is a frequently unrecognized ectoparasitosis[2] and source of growing concern in human medicine,[3] occurring after contact with avian mites which infest canaries,[4] sparrows, starlings, pigeons[5] and poultry[6] and caused by two genera of mites, Ornithonyssus and Dermanyssus.[7] Avian mite species implicated include the red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae),[8] tropical fowl mite (Ornithonyssus bursa)[9] and northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum)[8]. Mite dermatitis is also associated with rodents infested with the tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti),[10][11] spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina)[12] and house-mouse mite (Liponyssoides sanguineus), where the condition is known as rodent mite dermatitis.[13] Urban gamasoidosis is associated with window-sills, ventilation and air-conditioning intakes, rooves and eaves, which serve as shelters for nesting birds. Humans bitten by these mites experience a non-specific dermatitis with intense itching.[14][15]
Bites are normally located in groups around the neck and body areas covered by clothes (waist, trunk, upper extremities and abdomen),[3][10][17] but can also be found on the legs,[14] finger webs, axillae, the groin, and buttocks.[17] If feeding occurs while a patient is sleeping, bedclothes and pillows may show red spots caused by droppings or crushed mites.[3]
D. gallinae is capable of infesting the ear canal, with symptoms including itching, internal inflammation and discharge.[18] It can also infest the scalp, with severe itching — particularly at night as the primary symptom[19] — as well as "the nares, orbits and eyelids, and genitourinary and rectal orifices.“[20]

    """Diagnosis can be challenging as the small size of avian mites make them "barely visible to the unaided eye".[22] Identification of the species is best carried out by a medical entomologist using a microscope,[8] positive identification of species is critical for recommendation of suitable treatment. Samples can be obtained using corrugated cardboard traps, left in infested areas.[23]"""

Due to it being an uncommon diagnosis, physicians are generally not aware of the condition,[3] meaning gamasoidosis may be misdiagnosed as scabies or pediculosis[25] or bites mistakenly identified as coming from bed bugs.[26] Many cases of gamasoidosis go unreported, suggesting that the actual incidence is higher than generally believed

. gallinae may be commonly found in the bedroom or where the patient sleeps, as they prefer to stay close to their host for optimal feeding.[30] They are attracted to warm hiding places that simulate the body temperature of birds (e.g. pigeons 42 °C), "such as the electrical devices running in stand-by mode (e.g. laptop computers, television, radio clocks etc.)" which generate heat. As a result, "it is strongly recommended to check these electrical appliances for the mite detection".[14] D. gallinae generally visit their host for up to 1–2 hours, leave after completing their blood meal[14] and typically feed every 2–4 days.[24] They are able to move extremely quickly[16] and can take less than 1 second to bite, enough time to inject their saliva and to induce rash and itching.[14] They locate potential hosts through temperature changes,[14] vibration and CO².[31][32]

Patients are advised to:[3][14]
    • Shower frequently to remove mites from their skin and hair.
    • Washing clothes and bedding at temperatures, at or above 60 °C.
    • Remove the source of the mites, such as infested animal shelters, cages and nests.
    • Perform regular intensive vacuum cleaning and steam cleaning — the vacuum bag should be placed in a sealed bag and thrown away outside in a contained bin.
    • Disinfect infested household items and areas with effective acaricides such as pyrethroids.
    • Washing of textiles or steam cleaning (cushions, carpets, curtains) at or above 60 °C, and drying them using an automated laundry drier.
    • Dust infested areas with amorphous silica gels[41] such as CimeXa.[42]
    • Heat treat their residence — raising the temperature of their living space above 55 °C for a sustained period.
    • Reduce the relative humidity of their home below 55%.[36]

Certain essential oils are known to have an acaricide effect on avian mites.[45]
Cardboard traps impregnated with neem extracts or other acaricides[46] can be used to reduce avian mite populations.[47]

bloody fuck, what is all this shit
D. gallinae poses a significant threat to public health as the mite may be vector/reservoir of several zoonotic pathogens,[24] such as:
    * Chlamydia psittaci,
    * Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae,
    * Salmonella spp.,
    * Lyme disease,[24]
    * Mycobacterium spp.,
    * Coxiella burnetii,
    * Bartonella spp.,[26]
    * Borrelia burgdorferi,[48]
    * Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus,
    * Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and
    * Fowlpox virus.[49]

  mites → Sarcoptic mange (hair/skin disease)


Mange /ˈmeɪndʒ/ is a type of skin disease caused by parasitic mites.[1] Because mites also infect plants, birds, and reptiles, the term "mange", suggesting poor condition of the hairy coat due to the infection, is sometimes reserved only for pathological mite-infestation of nonhuman mammals.
Thus, mange includes  mite-associated skin disease in domestic animals (cats and dogs), in livestock (such as sheep scab), and in wild animals (for example, coyotes, cougars, and bears).[2][3] Since mites belong to the arachnid subclass Acari (also called Acarina), another term for mite infestation is acariasis. 
Parasitic mites that cause mange in mammals embed themselves in either skin or hair follicles in the animal, depending upon their genus. Sarcoptes spp. burrow into skin, while Demodex spp. live in follicles. 
In humans, these two types of mite infections, which would otherwise be known as "mange" in furry mammals, are instead known respectively as scabies and demodicosis. 

sarcoptic mange (dogs)

You will get it from the dog. It will itch but die and not spread.

What does it do to the dog?
The presence of the sarcoptic mite causes intense itching. The dog will chew and scratch its skin constantly. This leads to the loss of large amounts of hair, especially on the legs and belly. Eventually, the skin will become thickened and will darken. 
Is it contagious?
Yes. Sarcoptic mange is highly contagious to other dogs and humans. 
Although sarcoptic mites are not able to complete their life cycle on humans, they will cause severe itching until they die.

notoedric mange (cats)

in humans:
Infestation of N. cati causes several symptoms such as severe itchiness, alopecia, scales and characteristic dry, crusted, pruritic lesions that first appear in the region of the ears and rapidly spreads over the face, eyelids, neck and continues to infest the whole body.[5][6] Clinical symptoms appear within the incubation period, which is most commonly 10 days to 8 weeks after transmission has happened from contact with an infested animal.[7] Skin will become thickened and colour of crusting will change yellowish or grey as the parasitic disease progresses.[6][8][7] Self-trauma because of severe itching can cause excoriations to develop severe dermatitis, secondary bacterial infections. Far progressed Notoedric mange often leads to apathy, anorexia and even death.[9] In humans, infestation of N.cati can result in transient pruritic lesions.[10]

  mite: Demodex ("eyelash mites")


Lives in most adult people on eyebrows & eyelashes
Demodex is a genus of tiny mites that live in or near hair follicles of mammals.  Around 65 species of Demodex are known.[2] Two species live on humans: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis, both frequently referred to as eyelash mites

"The adult mites are only 0.3–0.4 mm (0.012–0.016 in) long, with D. brevis slightly shorter than D. folliculorum"

"Older people are much more likely to carry the mites; about a third of children and young adults, half of adults, and two-thirds of elderly people carry them"

May cause acne and rosacea!

    * https://www.longdom.org/open-access/impact-of-salvia-and-peppermint-oil-on-the-in-vitro-survival-of-demodex-mites-2155-9597-1000227.pdf :
        salvia & peppermint
    * [...]


connected to conjunctivitis?

The Demodicidae family includes strictly specialized parasitic mitesliving in the skin, hair follicles or outer epidermal layers. Demodexmites show strong host-species specificity. Up to now, two human-specific Demodex species have been described: Demodexfolliculorumand Demodex brevis. These mites may cause ocular demodicosis withsymptoms such as burning and itching of eyelids. Demodex plays animportant role in Demodex blepharitis, meibomian gland dysfunction,conjunctival inflammation or corneal lesions [1

  mites → Acariasis


Medical doctors and dermatologists can still misdiagnose this rash as many are unfamiliar with parasitism, not trained in it, or if they do consider it, cannot see the mites. 
Different methods for detection are recognized for different acariasis infections. Human acariasis with mites can occur in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, urinary tracts and other organs which not have been well-studied. For intestinal acariasis with symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and phohemefecia (is this hemafecia?), human acariasis is diagnosed by detection of mites in stools.[6] For pulmonary acariasis, the presence of mites in sputum is determined by identifying the presence and number of mites in the sputum of patients with respiratory symptoms. Both physical and chemical methods for liquefaction of sputum have been developed.[7]

How to develop and popularise pervasive and general tests?

  Rodent mites


Rodent mite dermatitis (also known as rat mite dermatitis) is an often unrecognized ectoparasitosis occurring after human contact with haematophagous mesostigmatid mites that infest rodents, such has house mice,[1] rats[2] and hamsters.[3] The condition is associated with the tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti), spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina) and house mouse mite (Liponyssoides sanguineus)[4] which opportunistically feed on humans. Rodent mites are capable of surviving for long periods without feeding and travelling long distances when seeking hosts.[4] Cases have been reported in homes, libraries,[5] hospitals[6] and care homes.[7] A similar condition, known as gamasoidosis, is caused by avian mites.[8]

    """Outbreaks tend to occur in older, less maintained buildings. The mite, however, can travel several hundred feet on its own if necessary to find a host and can survive for extended periods of time without a host. This, along with the nonspecific dermatitis it causes, can prevent accurate and fast diagnosis of rat mite dermatitis. The scarcity of reports, due in part to misdiagnosis and also the mildness of its symptoms, makes the disease seem less common than it is"""

    """Diagnosis requires species identification of the parasite, which will be likely to be found in the environment of its host rather than on the hosts’ skin.[10] Rodent mites are very small, for O. bacoti "female mites reach a size between 0.75 and 1.40 mm, males are a little smaller".[7]"""

    """The patient's environment should then be treated,[10] using both non-residual and residual insecticides, mites crawling in the open can be removed by vacuuming or with a cloth moistened with alcohol.[12]"""

Since early recorded history, people who live in urban areas have shared their environment with pets and synanthropic animals,  mainly  birds  and  rodents.  These  animals  harbor  zoonotic parasites, including mites of the suborder Mesos-tigmata    [  1  ] .  Among  them,  the  avian  mites    Dermanyssus (D.)  gallinae,    Ornithonyssus  (O.)  sylviarum,  O.  bursaand the tropical rat-mite,  O. bacoti are the most dermato-logically  relevant  species.  They  are  non-burrowing,  blood-sucking ectoparasites of similar shape and size (about 1 mm in  length)    [  1  ] .  With  the  exception  of    O.  sylviarum,  which  usually  lives  permanently  on  its  host,  they  are  temporary  and  nocturnal  visitors  of  their  victims,  hiding  in  daytime  in their close proximity. The resting/breeding sites of birds/rodents,  mainly  pigeons  and  feral  rats/mice  and  occasio-nally  pets,  act  as  mite  reservoirs    [  2,  3  ] ;  in  the  absence  of  their  natural  host,  hungry  mites  may  migrate  into  nearby  human buildings and bite their inhabitants. 
The parasites were identified as  D. gallinae  (20/26;  peninsular  regions),    O. bacoti  (4/26;  Sicily/peninsular regions),  O. bursa and  O. sylviarum (both 1/26;  Sicily)  based  on  morphological  key  characters    [  1,  4   ]  (Figure    3 ).

  (more mites)

Grocer's itch is a cutaneous condition characterized by a pruritic dermatitis that occurs from coming into contact with mites such as Carpoglyphus passularum (a fruit mite) or Glyciphagus domesticus (a common house mite). Contact usually occurs when handling food with mites in it, such as figs, dates, prunes, grain, cheese, or other dried foods

Grain itch is a cutaneous condition caused by several types of mites, and characterized by intense pruritus.[1]:454



DIY trap: attract + drown
    water + detergent + chicken meat
#TODO @IHI !!!

DIY trap: syrup (lemonade etc) + drowning
### >L something turns around and then they cannot escape anymore

Mice & Rats

Attacking cars / vans

    * https://www.facebook.com/richrebuilds/videos/308693244156620/ :
        rats destroy a Tesla
        lol "they brought stuff from outside the car inside"
    * cool trick for live-in vans:
        leave plastic bags around, especially at suspected & crossing zones. this will alert you.

Spread Diseases

    """Diseases such as the Hantavirus, Listeria, Rat-Bite Fever and Salmonellosis among many others are brought by rats"""


    It's important to identify the type.
    You can do this easy by different shit size/shapes

DIY poisons

    * plaster of paris:

    * with soda

Mix equal parts sugar, oatmeal + soda bicarbona.

A rat needs to eat about 2g of soda in weight.
It turns out that baking soda catalyzes some form of reaction inside the rat’s stomach. Baking soda combines with the stomach acids to produce carbon dioxide gas which rats are unable to tolerate


* DIY trap: with water + cereal:
    Put a bunch of cereal into a deep enough water bowl (like an 8L water bottle)
    put a straw for the mouse to walk on there
    it will fall inside and drown trying to jump out
    RIP mouse

* DIY trap: with oil:
    #TODO @krnica [!]


How to repulse?

* use fire to kill them
* vaccum the ant line
* desinfect to remove traces (if more would follow)
* set a barrier with salt and cinnamon
next time:
    * try BORAX (acid)?:
    * [...]

Biting ants?

... depends on the type!


1) invasion in house @Paillard
    * check where they enter <- window
    * they are attracted by food, remove food <- not in this case

2) (20200511 @ jablito.fuertventura):
    possible invasion by "Carpenter Ants"...:
       """Carpenter ants are one of the largest of all ant species. Carpenter ants have polymorphic workers, meaning that ants within a single colony may vary in size. Adult carpenter ants can measure from 6 to 12 mm in length. Males, or winged swarmers, can measure up to 18 mm, while queens grow to 20 mm in length."""


### tomerge !!!

* they piss on your stuff
* they bring you fleas
* they give you 🔗toxoplasmosis 
* they break your garbage in search for food
* they steal your fish
* [...]

How to repulse?
Dislike certain odors:
    * lemon & orange peels
    * wet coffee
    * minth
    * lavender

Check also:
    * https://www.alleycat.org/resources/how-to-live-with-cats-in-your-neighborhood/
    * https://www.easyologypets.com/blogs/news/smells-cats-hate


esp: "Cucaracha"

    * Always turn around your shoes!
    * They will hide in anything you leave outside even for seconds:
        shopping bags, boxes, empty trash cans ... 
        ... and so you will bring them in your house
    * are also conductive to trapping:
        water with bait (rotting fish worked well once!))
    * clean house regularly with chlorine/lejia (weekly)
    * close all holes in house! (door, etc)
    * learn how egg sacks look like
    * they like to live inside couches & in dark, moist spots (like back of kitchen closets)
    * [...]




"German cockroaches"
The German cockroach (Blattella germanica), colloquially known as the croton bug, is a species of small cockroach, typically about 1.1 to 1.6 cm (0.43 to 0.63 in)[1][2] long
2022: Found in Kranj, Slovenia




    * diseases?

    * how to repulse?

    * how to detect?

    * where will they crawl?:
        they didn't get into the van ever (except once when brought in)
        so they didn't go up the car? why not?
    * [...]

(NOT thermites)
CUBA: "comejen"

They are a problem in Canarias!
### wrote about this before #tomerge

Do they bite?:
    * "soldier termites", part of the colony, could. but it's unlikely you'll have contact
    * [...]

__________ [!!!] CAN THEY TRANSMIT DISEASES? ________

No pican ni muerden al ser humano, por lo que no se consideran portadoras de enfermedades, tampoco son conocidas por provocar ningún tipo de alergia, sin embargo ha habido edificios que se han desplomado por su acción afectando gravemente a las personas que había en su interior.

@Cuba, some librarians said so!
(found this at Jose Marti library, the librarian was afraid of them and "### bacteria" they spread)
"we are accustumed, but you ... less ... don't catch some infermedad ..."

this pages says yes [!!!**]
2 – Termites Carry Dangerous Diseases 
Termites are known to carry some dangerous diseases such as typhus, gastroenteritis, dysentery, and polio. The feces of termites are also responsible for asthma and other respiratory diseases.
but maybe is BS?

Wood worms

had problem in #trucko

### !!!


the cuttest insect :D

But an invasive species:

"" While predatory species are often used as biological control agents, introduced species of coccinellids are not necessarily benign. Species such as Harmonia axyridis or Coccinella septempunctata in North America outcompete and displace native coccinellids and become pests themselves. ""

    taking care of a ladybug <3


[!!] SKIN/CONTAGION— Candida (fungal) → candidiasis, especially Candida auris


A Candida yeast infection can also be identified by a KOH test by taking scrapings from the mouth (oral thrush), vagina (vaginitis) and skin (candidiasis). There are over 40 different fungus species known to cause disease in humans, of which Candida albicans is the most common and most frequently tested for. 

High level Candida colonization is linked to several diseases of the gastrointestinal tract including Crohn's disease.[89][90]
There has been an increase in resistance to antifungals worldwide over the past 30–40 years.[91][92]

(==white tongue)
Oral candidiasis, also known as oral thrush among other names,[1] is candidiasis that occurs in the mouth. That is, oral candidiasis is a mycosis (yeast/fungal infection) of Candida species on the mucous membranes of the mouth. 
In humans, oral candidiasis is the most common form of candidiasis,[17] by far the most common fungal infection of the mouth,[5] and it also represents the most common opportunistic oral infection in humans[40] with lesions only occurring when the environment favors pathogenic behavior. 


Invasive candidiasis is caused by 15 of the more than 150 known species of Candida. These species, all confirmed by isolation from patients, are: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, C. dubliniensis, C. pelliculosa, C. kefyr, C. lipolytica, C. famata, C. inconspicua, C. rugosa, and C. norvegensis.[4] Over the last 20–30 years, C. albicans has been responsible for 95% of infections, with, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei causing the majority of the remaining cases.[4] Recently, C. auris, a species first reported in 2009, has been found to cause invasive candidiasis. C. auris has attracted attention because it can be resistant to the antifungal medications used to treat candidiasis.[5]

Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that can cause invasive candidiasis and is associated with high mortality.[6] It was first described in 2009.[6] Since then, C. auris infections, specifically fungemia, have been reported from South Korea, India, South Africa, Kuwait, Colombia, Venezuela, Pakistan, the United Kingdom and the United States.[6] The strains isolated in each region are genetically distinct, indicating that this species is emerging  in different locations.[6] The reason for this pattern is unknown.[6]

(difficult diagnosis)
Positive culture of Candida species from normally sterile sites, such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardium, pericardial fluid, or biopsied tissue, is definitive evidence of invasive candidiasis.[2] Diagnosis by culturing allows subsequent susceptibility testing of causative species.[8][7]  Sensitivity of blood culture is far from ideal, with a sensitivity reported to be between 21 and 71%

Antifungals are used for treatment with the specific type and dose depending on the patient's age, immune status, and specifics of the infection. For most adults, the initial treatment is an echinocandin class antifungal (caspofungin, micafungin, or anidulafungin) given intravenously. Fluconazole, amphotericin B, and other antifungals may also be used


In tropical countries, C. tropicalis is one of the most common colonizer and pathogen causing human disease,[5] especially found on human skin, in the gastrointestinal tract and also in female genitourinary tract.[4] It can be transmitted between health-care workers and patients,[5] especially in environments such as hospitals.[5] C. tropicalis can survive for up to 24 hours therefore be cross-transmitted to a second hand with a probability of 69% and to a third hand with 38% probability.[5] It is the cause responsible for approximately half of the beyond-surface candida infections.[5] C. tropicalis is the second most virulent Candida species[7] that can significantly affect by spreading through the weakened immune system host and can occupy the gastrointestinal tract within 30 minutes of inoculation, all this resulting in increased mortality.[5][14][10] Impact of candidiasis, infections cause by C. tropicalis, have increased globally.[14] C. tropicalis is virulent due to its ability to produce biofilm, secrete lytic enzymes, adhere to epithelial and endothelial cells, and undergo transition of bud to hyphae.[15][10][7]

SKIN/CONTAGION— Streptococcus (bacterial)


In addition, streptococci are capable of causing skin disease through means other than direct infection of the skin; for example:
    • Scarlet fever is a reaction to a circulating toxin that is produced by some strains of streptococcus
    • Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSS)
    • Allergic hypersensitivity to streptococcal bacteria may result in erythema nodosum or vasculitis
    • Psoriasis, especially guttate forms, may be provoked or aggravated by streptococcal infection
    • Pustulosis acuta generalisata: scattered sterile pustules on hands, feet and elsewhere following an streptococcal upper respiratory tract infection; may be associated with painful joints.

lice/(cats→)fleas/mites → Typhus


Still around. Will be back.
2018 in LA.

A person can get typhus by coming in contact with fleas that are infected with the bacteria that cause typhus. Fleas become infected when they bite small animals like rats, opossums, and stray cats. Fleas can then spread the bacteria that cause typhus to other animals and humans.

Bacteria → Carrion's Disease

Carrion's disease, also known as bartonellosis, is a disease caused by the blood-borne bacteria, Bartonella bacilliformis. The disease is transmitted by the sand fly species Lutzomyia verracarum, as well as lice and fleas, and is found in areas of Peru, Colombia and Ecuador.[13] The lifecycle of the bacteria within Lutzomyia sand flies remain largely unknown, with speculation that the bacteria are spread between sandflies sharing the same breeding grounds and water supplies. The existence of bartonellosis transmission in areas not inhabited by Lutzomyia verracarum suggests that secondary vectors, and potentially other Lutzomyia species, are important in the spread of the disease.[14]



T. cruzi        
This parasite causes Chagas disease, which can be life-threatening. People get infected  from contact with the bug’s feces. Symptoms show up quickly as fever, fatigue, aches, headache, rash, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, and swollen eyelids. Later, it can lead to heart and intestine problems. Doctors treat the disease and kill the parasite with medication.
here: ??????
The triatomine bugs are capable of colonizing poorly constructed homes in rural, suburban and urban areas
Triatomine bugs can infect rodent, marsupials and other wild mammals. These triatomine bugs can also infect domesticated animals such as dogs and cat, and bring the T. cruzi (agent of the disease) inside human dwellings. 
* fuck this is horrible https://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5856:2011-informacion-general-enfermedad-chagas&Itemid=40370&lang=en
    • This nocturnal insect (also known as the kissing bug, 'vinchuca' in Spanish, or 'barbeiro' in Portuguese) is responsible for Chagas in the USA, Mexico, Central America and South America. Sleep under an insecticide-treated bed net.
        Travel health risk: Chagas

    * https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/chagas/gen_info/detailed.html
    * https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0008404 :
        "Fast recovery of house infestation with Triatoma brasiliensis after residual insecticide spraying in a semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil"
    * [...]




Q: How to get tested? How to do a big regular check that includes this kind of shit ???

    pork tapeworms → taeniasis & cysticercosis

    * https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/taeniasis/gen_info/faqs.html
    * https://www.who.int/taeniasis/disease/en/

scarce in "developed" world:
    ### !!! figure out how to talk about this
T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis mainly affects the health and livelihoods of subsistence farming communities in developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is common in areas where animal husbandry practices are such that pigs and cattle come into contact with human faeces. But imported taeniasis can also lead to cases in the population of countries where T. solium is not considered a public health problem.


"""They infect the intestines and brain, which can lead to a disease that causes headaches and seizures, called cysticercosis"""

Cysticercosis is acquired when worm proglottids or eggs are ingested and the developing larvae migrate through the body and form cysts in tissues. This is the case in pigs and cattle but it can also affect humans, usually when they swallow T. solium egg-contaminated soil, water or food (mainly vegetables) or through self-infection when hygiene practices, such as hand washing after the toilet, are unsufficient. When the central nervous system is affected by the larvae, the infection is called neurocysticercosis.


Humans can become infected with these tapeworms by eating raw or undercooked beef (T. saginata) or pork (T. solium and T. asiatica). People with taeniasis may not know they have a tapeworm infection because symptoms are usually mild or nonexistent.

    Brain-Eating Amoeba (N. fowleri)

People in the U.S. don’t have to worry as much about this parasite as people in Southeast Asia do. The bug, also known as N. fowleri
so ... not in the west

Most of these bugs infect your intestines. But the one that causes trichinosis also affects your muscles.        
Common roundworm diseases and their symptoms include:        
• Ascariasis -- belly pain
• Hookworm -- blood loss
• Pinworm -- anal itching
• Trichinosis -- pain, fever, face swelling, pink eye, rash
• Whipworm -- mucus, water and blood in stool, rectal prolapse (when part or all of the rectum slides out of place)

Nematodes that commonly parasitise humans include ascarids (Ascaris), filarias, hookworms, pinworms (Enterobius), and whipworms (Trichuris trichiura). The species Trichinella spiralis, commonly known as the 'trichina worm', occurs in rats, pigs, bears, and humans, and is responsible for the disease trichinosis. Baylisascaris usually infests wild animals, but can be deadly to humans, as well. Dirofilaria immitis is known for causing heartworm disease by inhabiting the hearts, arteries, and lungs of dogs and some cats. Haemonchus contortus is one of the most abundant infectious agents in sheep around the world, causing great economic damage to sheep. 

    (dog →) D. immitis / D. repens / D. tenuis → (mosquitos → ) dog/cat/~humans

(roundworm parasite, via mosquitos, via dogs, causing heart fibrosis)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirofilaria_immitis (dog heartworm, also cats, via mosquitos):
    "is a parasitic roundworm that is a type of filarial worm, a small thread-like worm, that causes dirofilariasis.
    It is spread from host to host through the bites of mosquitoes"

In humans?:
     ... "RARE" ?!?!
     ... so, yes.
     → https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirofilaria_immitis#Heartworm_infection_in_humans
    #anticats #antipets

It was thought to infect the human eye, with most cases reported from the southeastern United States. However, these cases are now thought to be caused by a closely related parasite of raccoons, Dirofilaria tenuis. Several hundred cases of subcutaneous infections in humans have been reported in Europe, but these are almost always caused by another closely related parasite, Dirofilaria repens, rather than the dog heartworm. There are proven D. immitis infections,[16]  but humans rarely get infected with heartworms due to the larvae never fully maturing

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirofilaria_tenuis → (mosquitos→) racoons/~~people
D. tenuis is not compatible with a human host, so it dies much more quickly, living only a few months.
During this time, a lump or nodule will form where the worm is located. This most commonly occurs near the site of the mosquito bite, but can also be much farther away.[9]
D. tenuis may migrate using the host’s blood, leaving the worm anywhere in the body,
even the conjunctiva of the eye.[7]

As the body attempts to clear the worm, the nodule may become painful:
    If the patient continues to experience discomfort, the worm may be surgically excised.
    Excision is a curative treatment and the worm is diagnosed as D. tenuis easily using its unique morphology.[9]
learn to diagnose & operate this kind of shit
#medical #surgery #diy

D.repens cyst in 20-year old woman

Although humans may become infected as aberrant hosts, the worms fail to reach adulthood while infecting a human body. 

    Giardia → diarrhea, etc
!!! might be more common? how to mark?

If you’ve ever been camping and you came down with diarrhea, gas, stomach cramps, bloating, and nausea, you’ve likely caught this bug. You get it through food or drinking water, or from contact with the feces of an infected person or animal. The illness can be treated with prescription drugs.


Giardiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Giardia duodenalis (also known as G. lamblia and G. intestinalis).[3] Infected individuals who experience symptoms (about 10% have no symptoms) may have diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.[1] Less common symptoms include vomiting and blood in the stool.[1] Symptoms usually begin 1 to 3 weeks after exposure and, without treatment, may last two to six weeks or longer.[4]
Giardiasis usually spreads when Giardia duodenalis cysts within feces contaminate food or water that is later consumed orally.[1] The disease can also spread between people and through other animals.[1] Cysts may survive for nearly three months in cold water.[1] Giardiasis is diagnosed via stool tests.[1]
Risk factors include travel in the developing world, changing diapers, eating food without cooking it, and owning a dog.[1] Cysts may survive for nearly three months in cold water.[1] Diagnosis is via stool tests
Giardia is one of the most common parasitic human diseases globally.[4] In 2013, there were about 280 million people worldwide with symptomatic giardiasis.[4] Rates are as high as 7% in the developed world and 30% in the developing world.[1] The World Health Organization classified it as a neglected disease.[1]

This bug's also called "crypto," and it affects your intestines. It’s spread by contact with the stool of an infected person or animal. People tend to catch it from pool water, especially kids. The diarrhea it causes can last a long time, but it usually goes away on its own without treatment.

    T. Vaginalis → trichomoniasis STD
This parasite causes a sexually transmitted disease called trichomoniasis, the most common curable STD. Most infected people don’t have any symptoms, but some may notice itching, burning, or irritation of their penis or vagina. It’s treated with antibiotics.

    Guinea Worm :-o

fuck me
This roundworm's days of spreading disease are nearly done, thanks to health groups that teach people how to avoid getting infected. People catch the bug by drinking water from ponds infected with larvae. The worms mate and grow in the stomach, then burst out through a blister on the skin. Symptoms can include fever, swelling, and pain near the blister, but it usually takes a year after infection for warning signs to show up. There’s no treatment.

  (cats → ) Toxoplasma → Toxoplasmosis

This bug makes its home in meat, water, and infected cat feces. It causes an illness called toxoplasmosis, which can feel like the flu. Pregnant women and people with weak immune systems can have serious symptoms, like cysts in the muscles, brain, and eyes. Usually it isn’t treated, but a doctor can prescribe medication for a severe infection.


  @sea → parasites → "Swimmer's itch" / cercarial dermatitis


These parasites are released from infected snails into fresh and salt water (such as lakes, ponds, and oceans).
While the parasite’s preferred host is the specific bird or mammal, if the parasite comes into contact with a swimmer, it burrows into the skin causing an allergic reaction and rash. Swimmer’s itch is found throughout the world and is more frequent during summer months.

The parasites that cause swimmer's itch live in the blood of waterfowl and in mammals that live near ponds and lakes. Examples include:
  • Geese
  • Ducks
  • Gulls
  • Beavers
  • Muskrats
The parasite's eggs enter the water via their hosts' feces. Before infecting birds, other animals or people, the hatched parasites must live for a time within a type of snail. These snails live near the shoreline, which explains why infections occur most often in shallow water.

caused by the larval stage of a group of flatworm parasites in the family Schistosomatidae.[6] The genera most commonly associated with swimmer's itch in humans are Trichobilharzia[1] and Gigantobilharzia. It can also be caused by schistosome parasites of non-avian vertebrates, such as Schistosomatium douthitti, which infects snails and rodents. Other taxa reported to cause the reaction include Bilharziella polonica and Schistosoma bovis. In marine habitats, especially along the coasts, swimmer's itch can occur as well.[7]

  parasitic flatworms schisotopes → Schistosomiasis


Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia,[9] is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes.[5] The urinary tract or the intestines may be infected.[5] Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloody stool, or blood in the urine.[5] Those who have been infected for a long time may experience liver damage, kidney failure, infertility, or bladder cancer.[5] In children, it may cause poor growth and learning difficulty.[5]
Diagnosis is by finding eggs of the parasite in a person's urine or stool.[5] It can also be confirmed by finding antibodies against the disease in the blood.[5]
Schistosomiasis affected about 252 million people worldwide in 2015.[6] An estimated 4,400 to 200,000 people die from it each year.[7][8] The disease is most commonly found in Africa, Asia, and South America.[5] Around 700 million people, in more than 70 countries, live in areas where the disease is common

  (ocean/water/land) amoeba + contact lenses → acanthamoeba keratitis

In the United States, Acanthamoeba keratitis is nearly always associated with soft contact lens use.[7] Acanthamoeba spp. is most commonly introduced to the eye by contact lenses that have been exposed to the organism through the use of contaminated lens solution, using homemade saline-based solution or tap water, or from wearing contact lenses while bathing or swimming
Infection of the cornea by Acanthamoeba is difficult to treat with conventional medications, and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) may cause permanent visual impairment or blindness, due to damage to the cornea or through damage to other structures important to vision
Further predisposing factors include contaminated home water supply, and low socioeconomic status. Infection is also more commonly seen in tropical or sub-tropical climates

    * "ring infiltrate" !!! (~50% cases)
    * [!!???]:
        * how to self-diagnose?
        * how fast does it develop?
        * can it easily be told apart from simple contact lense "eye tiredness" or "small conjunctivitis"
        * how prevalent is it?
        * [...]

also see:
    * https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypopyon
    * https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glaucoma
    * [...]

Fasciola Hepatica
SLO: "velik metljaj"


Fasciolopsis buski

by https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hulda_Regehr_Clark
In her book The Cure For All Cancers, Clark postulated all cancers and many other diseases are caused by the flatworm Fasciolopsis buski. "The adult [fluke], though, stays tightly stuck to our intestine or liver, causing cancer, or uterus, causing endometriosis, or thymus, causing AIDS, or kidney, causing Hodgkin's disease)."[10] "I have found that cancer, HIV, diabetes, endometriosis, Hodgkin's disease, Alzheimer's disease, lupus, MS and "universal allergy syndrome" are examples of fluke disease."

Dracunculiasis / Guinea-worm disease

Dracunculiasis, also called Guinea-worm disease, is a parasitic infection by the Guinea worm, Dracunculus medinensis. A person becomes infected from drinking water that contains water fleas infected with guinea worm larvae. After ingestion, the worms penetrate the digestive tract and escape into the body, where they develop over the course of a year. Eventually, the adult worm migrates to an exit site – usually a lower limb – and induces an intensely painful blister on the skin.

almost eradicated!
Previously affecting millions of people across Africa, India, and the Middle East, Guinea worm is now nearly eradicated, with just 27 cases documented in 2020.[3] It will likely be the first parasitic disease to be globally eradicated.[4] Because dogs may also become infected,[5] the eradication program is monitoring and treating dogs as well.[6]
Guinea worm disease has been known since ancient times.

<--------------------- (new) MORE PARASITES

Bacteria+Amoeba symbiosis in water tanks → Legionnaires' disease (pneumonia)

pneumonia caused by contaminated hot water tanks
(for this reason, you need to be careful with hot water installations in unused houses)

Legionnaires' disease, also known as legionellosis, is a form of atypical pneumonia caused by any type of Legionella bacteria.[3] Signs and symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, high fever, muscle pains, and headaches.[2] Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also occur.[1] This often begins 2–10 days after exposure.[2]
The bacterium is found naturally in fresh water.[4] It can contaminate hot water tanks, hot tubs, and cooling towers of large air conditioners.[4] It is usually spread by breathing in mist that contains the bacteria.[4] It can also occur when contaminated water is aspirated.[4]


Centipedes can inflict painful stings, but most are small and rarely sting humans. They live in damp places and hunt for prey at night. Centipedes are considered beneficial because they help control household pests such as cockroaches, silverfish, and ants.


Psocoptera / "psocids / "book lice"

* nymphs (~1mm) can be mistaken for bed bugs, or termites
* they do not bite, are not considered a problem

Psocids have chewing mouthparts, but they do not bite people or pets. When they invade kitchens, they can contaminate open packages of food.


"""The species known as booklice received their common name because they are commonly found amongst old books—they feed upon the paste used in binding. The barklice are found on trees, feeding on algae and lichen. No member of this order is currently considered endangered; in fact, in 2007, Atlantopsocus adustus, a species native to Madeira and the Canary Islands, was found to have colonized the mild Cornish coast of southwest England."""

to be found @Fuerte ... and maybe eating on Trucko :D

log: found summer of 2020


Pubic lice / crabs (Pthirus pubis) → Pediculosis pubis


* quite big, can be spotted with naked eye (~1-2mm)
* pubic regions & eyelashes

Common carpet beetle → rash


Carpet beetle rash
Some people can be allergic to carpet beetles, although most aren’t. Specifically, the allergy is to larvae bristles or skin that’s been shed. 
They can cause an allergic reaction if they come into contact with your:
    • skin 
    • eyes 
    • airways 
    • digestive tract
Symptoms of an allergic reaction to carpet beetles include:
  • red, itchy, and watery eyes
  • runny nose
  • itchy skin
  • rash, which looks like welts or bites, and may cause a burning sensation
  • hives
  • gastrointestinal issues
The symptoms of an allergic reaction will go away once the carpet beetles and their shed skin are eliminated from your home. 


In general, they only eat natural, animal-based fabrics such as:
  • wool
  • feathers
  • felt
  • fur 
  • silk 
  • leather 

"SUPERBUGS" (antibiotic-resistant bacteria)

Superbugs Kill a Person Every 15 Minutes in the United States
A new CDC report lists 18 antibiotic-resistant germs, adding two more to its 'urgent' list.
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter is the kind of bacteria that’s really driving antibiotic resistance around the world, according to Fabre.
The three other urgent threats on the CDC list are:
    • Clostridioides difficile (C. diff), a bacteria that can cause life-threatening diarrhea and colitis (inflammation of the colon)
    • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, also known as "nightmare bacteria," which are resistant to nearly all antibiotics
    • Drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea.

Clostridioides difficile infection[5]  (CDI or C-diff), also known as Clostridium difficile infection, is a symptomatic infection due to the spore-forming bacterium Clostridioides difficile.[2][6] Symptoms include watery diarrhea, fever, nausea, and abdominal pain.[1] It makes up about 20% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.[1]  Antibiotics can contribute to detrimental changes in gut microbiota; specifically, they decrease short-chain fatty acid absorption which results in osmotic, or watery, diarrhea.[7] Complications may include pseudomembranous colitis, toxic megacolon, perforation of the colon, and sepsis.[1]

as of 2020/08 ...
Urgent Threats
  • Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter
  • Candida auris
  • Clostridioides difficile
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
  • Drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Serious Threats
  • Drug-resistant Campylobacter
  • Drug-resistant Candida
  • ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci  (VRE)
  • Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Drug-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella
  • Drug-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhi
  • Drug-resistant Shigella
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
  • Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Drug-resistant Tuberculosis
Concerning Threats
  • Erythromycin-Resistant Group A Streptococcus
  • Clindamycin-resistant Group B Streptococcus
Watch List
  • Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus
  • Drug-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium
  • Drug-resistant Bordetella pertussis



[M??] Weird small (3mm) biting fly in fuerte ... "black fly"?


not a biting midge, more like a reduced size normal fly
known all 2020

typical behaviour:
    super fast
    circles around you, then dissapears
    you smash it and it's always destroyed

every time i see it, i get itchy bites on lower scalp and around ears

FUNGAL— candida → jock itch

Infections caused by fungus and yeasts: Candida (yeast), Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton (fungal molds)
Jock itch is most common in older, obese adults and athletes.

[!!] learn to recognize & separate


Clover mites


Clover mites are not harmful to humans, pets, or furniture.[4]

"Springtails" / springtail mites


"Size: Springtails are tiny insects. Their size ranges from 0.25 to 6 mm."
Kind of like fleas.

Springtails are just a nuisance; they do not cause damage or harm. However, if the pests find an appropriate breeding place inside, they will gather in large numbers and this may cause immense frustration and stress for residents

@sea: Seabather's eruption

aka "Sea lice" (but misnomer, as this is a fish-only parasite)
esp: Erupción del bañista


This type of rash can also be a symptom of Sea bather's eruption. This stinging, pruritic, maculopapular rash affects swimmers in some Atlantic locales (e.g., Florida, Caribbean, Long Island). It is caused by hypersensitivity to stings from the larvae of the sea anemone (e.g., Edwardsiella lineate) or the thimble jellyfish (Linuche unguiculata). The rash appears where the bathing suit contacts the skin.[5]

After contact

If you suspect you've been exposed to sea lice, exit the water immediately, remove your bathing suit, and shower thoroughly. Do not rinse with fresh water while still wearing the suit as this will cause the stinging cells still in the fabric to fire, releasing even more venom. Do not wear the same swimsuit again until it's been thoroughly machine washed and dried


In Canaries: ???

@sea: "Sea sawdust" (Trichodesmium erythraeum)

In Canary islands:

the Canary Islands Government, via Health Minister José Manuel Baltar, has clarified that health and environmental experts guarantee that the presence of microalgal blooms at a small number of Canary Islands beaches is a sporadic and natural event caused by a rare combination of biological, environmental and climatological factors.

The only effect of microalgae is skin irritation and the Canary Islands Health Authorities therefore recommend that people avoid direct skin contact with the blooms. These are easy to identify due to their characteristic appearance and colour. It must be noted that the Canary Islands Public Health System has not seen any variation in the number of reported cases of skin irritation since the start of the phenomenon."
The algae are a type of bacteria, trichodesmium erythraeum, also known as sea sawdust, said Aleman.
The bacterium "contains a toxin which can lead to skin irritation, dermatitis, hence one must avoid coming into contact with it in the water and on the sand."




blooms specific to conditions
Marta Sanson, professor of plant biology at Tenerife’s La Laguna university, said that “ideal conditions are allowing proliferation of these micro-algae”.
Those include “an increase in water temperature” as well as a “dust cloud sweeping in off the Sahara which is rich in iron, a nutrient which micro-organisms like”.

_____ NEW / UNSORTED _____

lone star ticks / red mites? → alpha-gal syndrome

Alpha-gal syndrome is a recently identified type of food allergy to red meat. In the United States, the condition most often begins when a Lone Star tick bite transmits a sugar molecule called alpha-gal into the body.Jul 13, 2019
Researchers now believe that some people who have frequent, unexplained anaphylactic reactions — and who test negative for other food allergies — may be affected by alpha-gal syndrome. There's no treatment other than avoiding red meat.


(Water-contact + mammals→)  Leptospirosis

... including rodents, cats, sheep, etc.

q: how does an infected animal, for example, feral cat look like?

human symptoms: jaundice + conjunctivitis

(Rodents→) Hantavirus

ESP: "La fiebre hemorrágica con síndrome renal (FHSR, HFRS por sus siglas en inglés) es un grupo de enfermedades clínicamente similares causadas por especies de hantavirus de la familia Hantaviridae"

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is an infectious disease characterized by flu-like symptoms that can progress rapidly to potentially life-threatening breathing problems.
If you've been around rodents or rodent droppings and have signs and symptoms of fever, chills, muscle aches or any difficulties breathing, seek immediate medical attention.


Causes Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
The species that cause HFRS include Hantaan orthohantavirus, Dobrava-Belgrade orthohantavirus, Saaremaa virus, Seoul orthohantavirus, Puumala orthohantavirus and other orthohantaviruses. It is found in Europe, Asia, and Africa.[1] Of these species, Hantaan River virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus cause the most severe form of the syndrome and have the highest morbidity rates. When caused by the Puumala virus, it is also called nephropathia epidemica.

Late to show symptoms:
"Symptoms of HFRS usually develop within 1 to 2 weeks after exposure to infectious material, but in rare cases, they may take up to 8 weeks to develop."

There was a 2021 outbreak in Slovenia.
(good report & advice!)

    Cleaning up after rodents (rats)

Safe cleanup procedures
Wet down dead rodents and areas where rodents have been with alcohol, household disinfectants or bleach.
This kills the virus and helps prevent infected dust from being stirred up into the air. Once everything is wet, use a damp towel to pick up the contaminated material.
Then mop or sponge the area with disinfectant.


aka coronavirus
aka SARS-CoV-19

The 2020 pandemic.


Nirmatrelvir, ritonavir, remdesivir and molnupiravir are antiviral medicines. Sotrovimab is a biological medicine also known as a neutralising monoclonal antibody (nMAb). Sotrovimab may be given to people if antiviral medicines are unsuitable for them to take.

Staphylococcus aureus

Staph infections are caused by staphylococcus bacteria, types of germs commonly found on the skin or in the nose of even healthy individuals. Most of the time, these bacteria cause no problems or result in relatively minor skin infections.
But staph infections can turn deadly if the bacteria invade deeper into your body, entering your bloodstream, joints, bones, lungs or heart. A growing number of otherwise healthy people are developing life-threatening staph infections.
Treatment usually involves antibiotics and drainage of the infected area. However, some staph infections no longer respond to common antibiotics.
Staph infections can range from minor skin problems to endocarditis, a life-threatening infection of the inner lining of your heart (endocardium). Because of this, signs and symptoms of staph infections vary widely, depending on the location and severity of the infection.
Skin infections caused by staph bacteria include:
  • Boils. The most common type of staph infection is the boil, a pocket of pus that develops in a hair follicle or oil gland. The skin over the infected area usually becomes red and swollen.    
  • If a boil breaks open, it will probably drain pus. Boils occur most often under the arms or around the groin or buttocks.    
  • Impetigo. This contagious, often painful rash can be caused by staph bacteria. Impetigo usually features large blisters that may ooze fluid and develop a honey-colored crust.
  • Cellulitis. Cellulitis — an infection of the deeper layers of skin — causes skin redness and swelling on the surface of your skin. Sores or areas of oozing discharge may develop, too.
  • Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Toxins produced as a result of a staph infection may lead to staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Affecting mostly babies and children, this condition features a fever, a rash and sometimes blisters. When the blisters break, the top layer of skin comes off — leaving a red, raw surface that looks like a burn.

Food poisoning:
    Staph bacteria are one of the most common causes of food poisoning.
    Symptoms come on quickly, usually within hours of eating a contaminated food.
    Symptoms usually disappear quickly, too, often lasting just half a day.

"These bacteria can also be transmitted from person to person. Because staph bacteria are so hardy, they can live on objects such as pillowcases or towels long enough to transfer to the next person who touches them."

  • Wash clothing and bedding in hot water. Staph bacteria can survive on clothing and bedding that isn't properly washed. To get bacteria off clothing and sheets, wash them in hot water whenever possible.    
  • Also, use bleach on any bleach-safe materials. Drying in the dryer is better than air-drying, but staph bacteria may survive the clothes dryer.    


Staphylococcus aureus toxins
Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous and versatile pathogen that can cause a multitude of different diseases. Most frequently, it causes skin infections and infections of the respiratory tract. Skin infections are usually community-acquired, whereas infections of the lung dominate among nosocomial S. aureus infections. Among nosocomial pathogens, S. aureus is the most common and associated with high morbidity and mortality. S. aureus pneumonia often develops in hospitalized patients with underlying conditions, such as in patients suffering from immune deficiencies or viral infections. However, S. aureus may also cause a variety of other sometimes very severe and life-threatening diseases, such as infective endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome, or osteomyelitis, to name but a few. Even necrotizing fasciitis and necrotizing pneumonia were reported with S. aureus as the causative agent

CA-MRSA (resistant Staph)

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of bacteria. Unlike other Staph bacteria, it can’t be killed by the antibiotic methicillin and other similar medicines and is therefore called methicillin-resistant. Community-acquired means that you didn’t get the infection in a hospital or other healthcare setting. MRSA infections are sometimes very hard to treat.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an infection of Staphylococcus (staph) bacteria. Staph infections can cause bumps, sores, and blisters on the skin. In severe cases, they can cause blood poisoning and shock.

via hospital
HA-MRSA is generally more likely to cause serious complications, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and the blood infection sepsis. It’s important to see your doctor right away if you notice any of the following symptoms:
  • rash
  • headaches
  • muscle aches
  • chills
  • fever
  • fatigue
  • cough
  • shortness of breath
  • chest pain

via community
Symptoms of CA-MRSA
CA-MRSA usually causes skin infections. Areas that have increased body hair, such as the armpits or back of the neck, are more likely to be infected.
Areas that have been cut, scratched, or rubbed are also vulnerable to infection because your biggest barrier to germs — your skin — has been damaged.
The infection usually causes a swollen, painful bump to form on the skin. The bump may resemble a spider bite or pimple. It often has a yellow or white center and a central head.
Sometimes an infected area is surrounded by an area of redness and warmth, known as cellulitis. Pus and other fluids may drain from the affected area. Some people also experience a fever.

 How can MRSA be prevented?
Take the following measures to reduce your risk of getting and spreading CA-MRSA:
  • Wash your hands on a regular basis. This is the first line of defense against spreading MRSA. Scrub your hands for at least 15 seconds before drying them with a towel. Use another towel to turn off the faucet. Carry hand sanitizer that contains 60 percent alcohol. Use it to keep your hands clean when you don’t have access to soap and water.
  • Keep your wounds covered at all times. Covering wounds can prevent pus or other fluids containing staph bacteria from contaminating surfaces that other people may touch.
  • Don’t share personal items. This includes towels, sheets, razors, and athletic equipment.
  • Sanitize your linens. If you have cuts or broken skin, wash bed linens and towels in hot water with extra bleach and dry everything at high heat in the dryer. You should also wash your gym and athletic clothes after each use.
[!!!→] #manual

(blackflies→) Onchocerca volvulus worms → Onchocerciasis ("river blindness")

The origins of ivermectin as a human drug are inextricably linked with Onchocerciasis (or River Blindness), a chronic human filarial disease caused by infection with Onchocerca volvulus worms. The parasites are transmitted via the bite of infected blackflies of the genus Simulium, which breed in highly-oxygenated, fast-flowing rivers and watercourses. In the human body, immature larval forms of the parasite create nodules in subcutaneous tissue, where they mature into adult worms. After mating, female worms can release up to 1000 microfilariae a day for some 10–14 years. These move through the body, and when they die they cause a variety of conditions, including skin rashes, lesions, intense itching, oedema and skin depigmentation (Fig. ​(Fig.2 ).2 ). Microfilariae also invade the eye, causing visual impairment and loss of vision, onchocerciasis being the second leading cause of blindness caused by an infectious disease.17) The disease causes visual damage for some 1–2 million people, around half of who will become blind.18)



The silverfish is an agile runner and can outrun most of its predators (including wandering spiders and centipedes). However, such running is possible only on horizontal surfaces, as it lacks any additional appendages, and therefore is not fast enough to climb walls at the same speed.[citation needed] It also avoids light.[10]

They inhabit moist areas, requiring a relative humidity between 75% and 95%.

Silverfish are able to digest cellulose by themselves, thanks to the cellulase that is produced by its midgut.[9] They  consume matter that contains polysaccharides, such as starches and dextrin in adhesives.[4] These include book bindings, carpet, clothing, coffee, dandruff, glue, hair, some paints, paper, photos, plaster, and sugar. They will damage wallpaper in order to consume the paste.[17] Silverfish can also cause damage to tapestries. Other substances they may eat include cotton, dead insects, linen, silk, leftover crumbs, or even their own exuviae (moulted exoskeleton). During famine, a silverfish may even consume leatherware and synthetic fabrics. Silverfish can live for a year or more without eating if water is available

Silverfish are considered household pests, due to their consumption and destruction of property.[2]
However, although they are responsible for the contamination of food and other types of damage, they do not transmit disease.[4][19] Earwigs, house centipedes, and spiders such as the spitting spider Scytodes thoracica are known to be predators of silverfish.

Together with jumping bristletails, the predecessors of silverfish are considered the earliest, most primitive insects. They evolved at the latest in mid-Devonian and possibly as early as late Silurian more than 400 million years ago

Campylobacter jejuni (→ food poisoning)


"Campylobacter jejuni (/ˈkæmpɪloʊˌbæktər dʒəˈdʒuːni/) is one of the most common causes of food poisoning ... The European Food Safety Authority reported 246,571 cases in 2018, and estimated approximately nine million cases of human campylobacteriosis per year in the European Union.[3]
Campylobacter jejuni is in a genus of bacteria that is among the most common causes of bacterial infections in humans worldwide. 
C. jejuni is commonly associated with poultry, and is also commonly found in animal feces.
It has been linked with subsequent development of Guillain–Barré syndrome, which usually develops two to three weeks after the initial illness.[12] Individuals with recent C. jejuni infections develop Guillain-Barré syndrome at a rate of 0.3 per 1000 infections, about 100 times more often than the general population.[13] Another chronic condition that may be associated with Campylobacter infection is reactive arthritis.[14] Reactive arthritis is a complication strongly associated with a particular genetic make-up. That is, persons who have the human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) are most susceptible. Most often, the symptoms of reactive arthritis will occur up to several weeks after infection.[4][15]
"Campylobacteriosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Campylobacter. In most people who become ill with campylobacteriosis, symptoms develop within two to five days of exposure to the organism and illness typically lasts seven days following onset.[2] Infection with C. jejuni usually results in enteritis, which is characterised by abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and malaise. Diarrhea itself can vary in severity from loose to bloody stools. The disease is usually self-limiting. However, it does respond to antibiotics
Infection results from the ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the infective dose can be as low as 800 organisms
surveys show that 20 to 100% of retail chickens are contaminated.  This is not overly surprising, since many healthy chickens carry these bacteria in their intestinal tracts and often in high concentrations, up to 108 cfu/g
  • Cook all poultry products thoroughly. Make sure that the meat is cooked throughout (no longer pink) and any juices run clear. All poultry should be cooked to reach a minimum internal temperature of 165 °F (74 °C).
  • Prevent cross-contamination in the kitchen by using separate cutting boards for foods of animal origin and other foods and by thoroughly cleaning all cutting boards, countertops, and utensils with soap and hot water after preparing raw food of animal origin.

(@ANTS) ant parasite changing their social status, longevity ...


Respiratory syncytial virus

("also happening during Covid pandemic")

Black mold (Stachybotrys→mycotoxins)


Never try to remove toxic black mold on your own. Disturbing toxic black mold can make it release huge amounts of spores and mycotoxins throughout your home, making your symptoms much worse.
Jesus fucking christ

fucking hell ... this is a big problem
Natural removal (at end):
    * soda
    * white vinegar
https://www.deloindom.si/enostanovanjske-hise/dom-brez-vlage-premisljeno-nad-madeze-plesen (SLO)


There is no single type of mold called “black mold” — many molds are black. When people use the term, they may be referring to a type called Stachybotrys chartarum (S. chartarum), also known as Stachybotrys atra.
There is no scientific evidence to suggest that exposure to S. chartarum is more dangerous than exposure to any other type of mold.
However, some people may be more sensitive to mold spores than others, and they may develop respiratory symptoms after inhaling even a small number of spores. In large quantities, mold spores can cause ill health in almost anyone.


Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also called myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) or ME/CFS, is a complex, debilitating, long-term medical condition. The causes and mechanisms of the disease are not yet fully understood. [12] Distinguishing core symptoms are lengthy exacerbations or "flares" of the illness after ordinary minor physical or mental activity, known as post-exertional malaise (PEM);[13][14] greatly diminished capacity to accomplish tasks that were routine before the illness; and sleep disturbances.[13][15][1][5][2]: 7  Orthostatic intolerance (difficulty sitting and standing upright) and cognitive dysfunction are also diagnostic. Frequently and variably, other common symptoms occur involving numerous body systems, and chronic pain is common.[15][16] The unexplained and often incapacitating fatigue in CFS is different from that caused by normal strenuous ongoing exertion, is not significantly relieved by rest, and is not due to a previous medical condition.[15] Diagnosis is based on the person's symptoms because no confirmed diagnostic test is available.[17]




"Causative organisms include protozoans, viral and bacterial pathogens."

  • Naegleria fowleri (percolozoa)
  • Trypanosoma brucei (euglenozoa)
  • Toxoplasma gondii (apicomplexa)
Halicephalobus gingivalis
This nematode is an exceptionally rare cause of meningoencephalitis.[19]
Other causes include granulomatous meningoencephalitis and vasculitis. The fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans, can be symptomatically manifested within the CNS as meningoencephalitis with hydrocephalus being a very characteristic finding due to the unique thick polysaccharide capsule of the organism.[citation needed]

_______ TREAT

Antiviral therapy, such as acyclovir and ganciclovir, work best when applied as early as possible.  May also be treated with interferon as an immune therapy. Symptomatic therapy can be applied as needed

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD)

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotics. Microbiotal alteration changes carbohydrate metabolism with decreased short-chain fatty acid absorption and an osmotic diarrhea as a result. Another consequence of antibiotic therapy leading to diarrhea is overgrowth of potentially pathogenic organisms such as Clostridium difficile. It is defined as frequent loose and watery stools with no other complications.[1]

Perioral dermatitis

Perioral dermatitis, also known as periorificial dermatitis, is a common type of skin rash. Symptoms include multiple small (1–2 mm) bumps and blisters sometimes with background redness and scale, localized to the skin around the mouth and nostrils. Less commonly the eyes and genitalia may be involved.[2] It can be persistent or recurring and resembles particularly rosacea and to some extent acne and allergic dermatitis. The term "dermatitis" is a misnomer because this is not an eczematous process.[3]
The cause is unclear.[1] Topical steroids are associated with the condition and moisturizers and cosmetics may contribute.[3] The underlying mechanism may involve blockage of the skin surface followed by subsequent excessive growth of skin flora. Fluoridated toothpaste and some micro-organisms including Candida may also worsen the condition, but their roles in this condition is unclear.[4] It is considered a disease of the hair follicle with biopsy samples showing microscopic changes around the hair follicle. Diagnosis is based on symptoms.[4]

Water contamination (bacteriological, pesticides, pharmaceutical, heavy metals, etc)



[!!¶] check for vaccinations

Use of aqueous iodine or 2% glutaraldehyde at pH 7.5 to 8.5 kills spores within 3 hours; autoclaving at 120° C and 15 psi destroys them within 15 to 20 minutes. The most common source of environmental exposure to C. tetani bacilli and spores is soil, where the organism is widely but variably distributed.

Ticks→ HGA (Anaplasmosis)

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne, infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium that is typically transmitted to humans by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, including Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus in North America. These ticks also transmit Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.[3]
The bacteria infect white blood cells called neutrophils, causing changes in gene expression that prolong the life of these otherwise short-lived cells.[4]
Doxycycline is the treatment of choice. If anaplasmosis is suspected, treatment should not be delayed while waiting for a definitive laboratory confirmation, as prompt doxycycline therapy has been shown to improve outcomes.[

Related (USA-only)
Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne[3] bacterial infection,[4] caused by bacteria of the family Anaplasmataceae, genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. These obligate intracellular bacteria infect and kill white blood cells. 
The average reported annual incidence is on the order of 2.3 cases per million people.[5]


basics, causes, etc
* present in stool of infected
* hand-to-mouth pathway:
    (infected kaka touches food sometimes in the processing, which is not sterilized properly)
* contagious in this way!
* causes Epididymitis (TESTICULAR SWELLING) in advanced stage


Infectious E. coli bacteria can be spread from humans and animals. The most common ways it spreads are: 
  • eating undercooked or raw meat
  • eating contaminated, raw fruits and vegetables
  • drinking unpasteurized milk
  • swimming in or drinking contaminated water
  • contact with a person who has poor hygiene and doesn’t wash their hands regularly
  • contact with infected animals


—————— case @cuba
#medical [!→]
    "i need nitrofurantoina"
    how do you get it?:
        "i need to find groups in telegram"


————— treatment

According to [7], E. coli is highly resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim & sulfamethoxazole

In severe infection, piperacillin and tazobactam, imipenem and cilastatin, or meropenem may be used. Combination therapy with antibiotics that cover E coli plus an antianaerobe can also be used (eg, levofloxacin plus clindamycin or metronidazole).Feb 11, 2019

Sand fleas

Erma Rodriguez Kraft
The sand flea can live inside your skin, growing bigger with its eggs and your blood, for up to six weeks
Tungiasis is caused by female sand fleas, which burrow into the skin and lay eggs.
Tungiasis can cause abscesses, secondary infections, gangrene and disfigurement. Please see your Dr

  • Tungiasis is caused by female sand fleas, which burrow into the skin and lay eggs.
  • Tungiasis can cause abscesses, secondary infections, gangrene and disfigurement.
  • The disease is found in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world; the poorest people carry the highest burden of the disease.
  • Both animals and humans are susceptible.
Tungiasis is a cutaneous parasitosis caused by infection with the female sand flea Tunga penetrans (and T. trimamillatain some areas). It is also commonly known as pulga de areia, niguá, pique, bicho do pé, bichodo porco or jatecuba, and, in English-speaking countries, as jigger, sand flea or chigoe. Tungiasis is a zoonosis that affects humans and animals alike.
The flea typically lives for 4–6 weeks, after which the eggs are expelled and fall to the ground. The toes, sole, lateral rim of the foot and heel are common sites, and 99% of all lesions occur on the feet. Considerable itching and pain occur as the female fleas develop fully and increase their body volume by a factor of 2000 within one week. Bacterial infections in the lesions can cause abscesses, suppuration or lymphangitis. Multiple lesions and intense local inflammation exacerbate the pain and restrict mobility.
Several mammalian species can act as reservoirs for human infection. In rural areas, these are predominantly pigs and bovines; in resource-poor urban communities, dogs, cats and rats. In some areas, infection can be transmitted without an animal reservoir when skin comes into contact with soil or a floor where adult sand fleas have developed. Infection often takes place inside the house, the surrounding area or in classrooms without sealed floors.  

————— secondary problems

In endemic areas, the standard treatment is surgical extraction of burrowed sand fleas, which is usually done by the patients themselves or a caregiver. Embedded parasites are removed under non-sterile conditions using instruments such as sticks, hair pins, sewing needles or scissors. The procedure is painful and poorly tolerated by children. Removing the fleas can cause local inflammation if the parasite ruptures and introduce pathogenic bacteria, leading to superinfection of the sore. The instrument is often subsequently used on several persons, which risks transmission of diseases such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or HIV.
Metrifonate, thiabendazole and ivermectin have been tested as topical applications; however, none proved to be sufficiently effective1. The topical application of a two-component dimeticone with a defined viscosity, as found in treatments for headlice, is highly effective2,3.

————— curing

The regular application of a repellent based on coconut oil effectively prevents the fleas from penetrating the skin. When the repellent is applied twice daily on the feet, tungiasis-associated morbidity rapidly decreases and approaches zero after 8–10 weeks 4. Even if applied intermittently, the reduction of morbidity is significant.

Tuberculosis (TBC)

there's idiotic people running around with it,
[!!] involuntary isolation rules/laws/provisions

Fungal meningytis (via fungal spores)

For example, in:
    * pigeon droppings
    * ###

via https://apnews.com/article/caribbean-mexico-city-health-medication-92822e20d3dd647b8e929a3c066f7efa
(>30 dead in fungal contaminated morphine)

... similar case mentions "Fusarium solani"

Fungal meningitis can develop after a fungal infection spreads from somewhere else in the body to the brain or spinal cord.
Some causes of fungal meningitis include Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, and Candida.

Many fungi that can cause meningitis live in the environment:
  • Cryptococcus lives in the environment throughout the world.
  • Histoplasma lives in the environment, particularly in soil that contains large amounts of bird or bat droppings. In the United States, the fungus mainly lives in the central and eastern states. →→ https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/histoplasmosis/index.html
  • Blastomyces lives in moist soil and in decaying wood and leaves. In the United States, the fungus mainly lives in midwestern, south central, and southeastern states.
  • Coccidioides lives in the soil in the southwestern United States, south-central Washington State, and parts of Mexico and Central and South America.
The fungus Candida can also cause meningitis. Candida normally lives inside the body and on the skin without causing any problems. However, in certain patients who are at risk, Candida can enter the bloodstream or internal organs and cause an infection.

People with weak immune systems should [...]
This is especially true if they live in a geographic region where fungi like Histoplasma, Coccidioides, or Blastomyces exist.

_____ testing

This page provides information on  cryptococcal antigen Latex agglutination testing at Public Health Ontario’s  (PHO) laboratory. The causative agent(s) of cryptococcosis is Cryptococcus neoformans. This page is  for information specific to Antigen Latex Agglutination testing. Antibody  testing is not available at PHO’s laboratory.
The Cryptococcal  Antigen Latex Agglutination System (CALAS) is a qualitative and semi-quantitative  test system for the detection of capsular polysaccharide antigens of Cryptococcus  neoformans in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

            Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) detection could direct the timely initiation of antifungal therapy. We searched MEDLINE and Embase for studies where CrAg detection in serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and CSF fungal culture were done on adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had suspected cryptococcal meningitis (CM). With Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2), we evaluated the risk of bias in 11 included studies with 3600 participants, and used a random-effects meta-analysis to obtain summary sensitivity and specificity of serum and CSF CrAg, as well as agreement between CSF CrAg and CSF culture. Summary sensitivity and specificity of serum CrAg were 99.7% (97.4-100) and 94.1% (88.3-98.1), respectively, and summary sensitivity and specificity of CSF CrAg were 98.8% (96.2-99.6) and 99.3% (96.7-99.9), respectively. Agreement between CSF CrAg and CSF culture was 98% (97-99). In adults living with HIV who have CM symptoms, serum CrAg negativity may rule out CM, while positivity should prompt induction antifungal therapy if lumbar puncture is not feasible. In a first episode of CM, CSF CrAg positivity is diagnostic.    
                        Keywords:                    antigen; cryptococcus; diagnosis; lateral flow assay; latex agglutination.    

Over the last decade, an upsurge in both the frequency and severity of fungal infections due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the use of immunosuppressive therapy has occurred. Even diagnostic methods like culture and microscopy, which have low sensitivity and longer turn-around-times are not widely available, leading to delays in timely antifungal therapy and detrimental patient outcomes. The evolution of cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing to develop inexpensive and more sensitive methods to detect cryptococcal antigen is significant. These newer tests employ immunoassays as part of point-of-care platforms, which do not require complex laboratory infrastructure and they have the potential to detect early disease and reduce time to diagnosis of cryptococcal infection. Advocacy for widely available and efficacious life-saving antifungal treatment should be the only remaining challenge.
Keywords: Cryptococcus, antigen, testing, lateral flow, assay, HIV, diagnosis, thermal contrast, Fungus, cryptococcal disease, cryptococcal meningitis
Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and increased use of immunosuppressive therapy have led to an increase in both the frequency and severity of fungal infections [1]•. Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gatti are responsible for an estimated 700,000 cases of cryptococcal meningitis in sub Saharan Africa [2] and 7,800 cases of cryptococcal meningitis in North America in 2006 respectively [3]. Mortality from cryptococcal disease remains high even in the era of ART. Early diagnosis of cryptococcal infection is critical to improving clinical outcomes.
A notable increase in the prevalence of cryptococcal meningitis in the last decade has not been matched by improved diagnostics in resource limited settings where most of the infections occur. The low sensitivity of older test methods and delay in obtaining results has driven research for cheaper and more widely available sensitive diagnostics.

Fire ants (cuba: santanilla/santanica)

they don't bite, but spray stuff on you
wash it off!
### moo: "i learned to live with it ... they are everywhere ... in all the trees ..."

In Cuba, it's an invasive pest!

Wasmannia auropunctata . Pequeña hormiga de fuego como también suele llamársele, es culpada por la reducción de la diversidad de especies, la reducción de la abundancia total de insectos voladores que viven en los árboles, y la eliminación de las poblaciones de arácnidos. También es conocido por sus dolorosas picaduras. 

Good advice to get rid of
* spill sugar
* see their entry
* block + sanitize with KH7

iron/sulfur bacteria (not problematic)

the gelly stuff found in toilet water tanks

Iron bacteria typically exist on top of the ground, either in soil or surface water. While some iron bacteria may occur naturally in groundwater, more often they are introduced into water wells during well construction or maintenance. These bacteria can then be introduced into the well if well components are laid on soil containing iron bacteria, if contaminated surface water is used as drilling water, if drilling equipment is contaminated by bacteria, or if poor well construction allows for contamination from flooding, septic systems, or other sources.
Tastes and odors produced by iron bacteria are described as swampy, musty, or like oil, petroleum, cucumbers, sewage, or rotten vegetation. Iron bacteria can also cause reddish, yellow, brown, or gray deposits or orange or opaque slimy strands inside toilet tanks or orange-colored water. Testing well water for iron and manganese can provide information on the presence of these metals, which could help confirm the likelihood of iron bacteria if aesthetic symptoms are also found. Since sulfur-reducing bacteria result in the production of hydrogen sulfide gas, the best indication of a sulfur bacteria problem is the rotten-egg odor; however, these bacteria can also produce a dark-colored slime.

(specific mosquitos) → dengue

[!!] dengue alerts ... how to monitor live situation?

Just a few years ago, they didn’t survive at altitudes greater than 1200 meters above sea level, but now they are wreaking havoc at over 1700 m.
If they could only lay eggs in clean water before, they are now appearing in wastewater and brackish water leaks, especially near the coast, which means their habitat has become more diverse.

Serotype 2 of dengue fever is the one that is most common in Cuba, although some cases of serotype 1 have also been detected. If you are infected with serotype 1 of the virus, you can get any of the others, as you aren’t immune to them.
“When there are cases of different serotypes in the same person, chances of developing more severe symptoms are greater,” Francisco Duran, the national director of Epidemiology, warned.

re-infections are worse, due to ADE!
ADE may follow when a person who has previously been infected with one serotype becomes infected months or years later with a different serotype, producing higher viremia than in first-time infections. Accordingly, while primary (first) infections cause mostly minor disease (dengue fever) in children, re-infection is more likely to be associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever and/or dengue shock syndrome in both children and adults.[37]

There is no antiviral treatment for Dengue fever, and the only approved vaccine–Sanofi's Dengvaxia–can prove risky. Dengvaxia can reduce the severity of Dengue fever in those who have had a prior infection. However, Dengvaxia may increase the risk of severe Dengue in those who have not yet been infected
tamiflu don't help

dengue + covid coinfection ... plus resistance?!
From the above observations, it appeared that pre-exposure to DV may render partial protection against COVID-19 as may be the case in highly dengue endemic regions of the world. This epidemiological observation has now been supported by biological evidences.

Gnats ... @cuba: "jejenes" (GNATS #3)

a general word, but in principle, it's ...
Leptoconops bequaerti

An investigation was carried out in Sevilla town, located in the coastal municipality        of Guamá, Santiago de Cuba, to identify the species of insects affecting this population, as        well as their main breeding sources and the periods of the adults' greater hematophagus        activity, for directing efficiently the strategies to control vectors.  To achieve this,        larvae entomological interviews and captures of mature insects on human bait were carried        out. Leptoconops becquaerti (Kieffer) was identified as the species of greater        hematophagus activity during daily hours, with more incidence between 09.30 and 11.30 hours.  It        was concluded that this new report of the province, and particularly of the mentioned        site, constitutes a very useful element from the entomological, hygienic-epidemiological points        of view, because gnats are important viral encephalitis and other infectious        agents transmitters, as phylarias and diverse protozoos.     
Key words: Leptoconops bequaerti, gnats, dipteral hematophagus, vectors, insects        stings, entomological control.                             
i suppose "phylarias"→[sic]→filariasis

(from a horse's perspective)
Family Ceratopogonidae
Culicoides spp. (gnats, sandflies, biting midges, ‘punkies’, ‘no-see-ums’) occur throughout the world, and cause severe irritation and hypersensitivity and are important vectors for diseases such as African horse sickness and equine viral arteritis. Different species have different preferred biting patterns and regional information, relating to the species and local climate, is useful in assessing their local significance. Adult Culicoides gnats are blood-sucking parasites and their bites are immediately painful and annoying for the horse. There is a characteristically rapid onset of pruritus, and the development of local papules and wheals at the site. Individual lesions last for several days, and frequent attacks cause almost continuous irritation. The majority of horses in a group are affected when the populations of Culicoides spp. are at their peak. In some enzootic areas in tropical and sub-tropical countries this can be continuous throughout the year. Culicoides spp. are most active at dusk and dawn, with little activity during the heat of the day and the cool of night. The preferred sites vary depending on the species, but the neck and back, the head, and ventral midline are commonly affected. They are also responsible for the development of a very common hypersensitivity disorder known as ‘sweet itch’ and for a ventral midline dermatitis.

Influenza (aka "flu")

There are 4 types of seasonal influenza viruses, types A, B, C and D. Influenza A and B viruses circulate and cause seasonal epidemics of disease. 
  • Influenza A viruses are further classified into subtypes according to the combinations of the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA), the proteins on the surface of the virus. Currently circulating in humans are subtype A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) influenza viruses. The A(H1N1) is also written as A(H1N1)pdm09 as it caused the pandemic in 2009 and subsequently replaced the seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus which had circulated prior to 2009. Only influenza type A viruses are known to have caused pandemics.
  • Influenza B viruses are not classified into subtypes, but can be broken down into lineages. Currently circulating influenza type B viruses belong to either B/Yamagata or B/Victoria lineage.
  • Influenza C virus is detected less frequently and usually causes mild infections, thus does not present public health importance.
  • Influenza D viruses primarily affect cattle and are not known to infect or cause illness in people.

Influenza B is believed to be a milder virus compared to some strains of influenza A, such as H3N2, but more potent than the influenza A strains like H1N1 [4]. In fact, multiple studies have suggested increased potency of influenza B virus in causing severe disease and mortality.

——————————— TREATMENT
treatment in complicated case with antivirals:
  • Neuraminidase inhibitors (i.e. oseltamivir) should be prescribed as soon as possible (ideally, within 48 hours following symptom onset) to maximize therapeutic benefits. Administration of the drug should also be considered in patients presenting later in the course of illness.
oseltamivir = "tamiflu". prescription only, monitored.

There are four FDA-approved antiviral drugs recommended by CDC to treat flu this season.
  • oseltamivir phosphate (available as a generic version or under the trade name Tamiflu®),
  • zanamivir (trade name Relenza®)
  • peramivir (trade name Rapivab®), and.
  • baloxavir marboxil (trade name Xofluza®).

[white rice→] Bacillus cereus

Cooked rice can contain Bacillus cereus spores, which produce an emetic toxin when left at 4–60 °C (39–140 °F). When storing cooked rice for use the next day, rapid cooling is advised to reduce the risk of toxin production.[26] One of the enterotoxins produced by Bacillus cereus is heat-resistant; reheating contaminated rice kills the bacteria, but does not destroy the toxin already present. 


Hours to multiply by 1,000,000 at 30°C:
    Milk ~10h
    Cooked rice ~9h

is responsible for a minority of foodborne illnesses (2–5%), causing severe nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.[39] Bacillus foodborne illnesses occur due to survival of the bacterial endospores when infected food is not, or is inadequately, cooked.[40] Cooking temperatures less than or equal to 100 °C (212 °F) allow some B. cereus spores to survive.[41] This problem is compounded when food is then improperly refrigerated, allowing the endospores to germinate.[

  • The diarrheal type is associated with a wide range of foods, has an 8-to-16-hour incubation time, and is associated with diarrhea and gastrointestinal pain. Also known as the 'long-incubation' form of B. cereus food poisoning, it might be difficult to differentiate from poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens.[45] Enterotoxin can be inactivated after heating at 56 °C (133 °F) for 5 minutes
  • The 'emetic' form commonly results from rice which is cooked at a time and temperature insufficient to kill any spores present, then improperly refrigerated. The remaining spores can produce a toxin, cereulide, which is not inactivated by later reheating. This form leads to nausea and vomiting 1–5 hours after consumption. Distinguishing from other short-term bacterial foodborne intoxications, such as by Staphylococcus aureus, can be difficult.[45] Emetic toxin can withstand 121 °C (250 °F) for 90 minutes.[47]

(general Bacillus)

B. cereus and other members of Bacillus are not easily killed by alcohol; they have been known to colonize distilled liquors and alcohol-soaked swabs and pads in numbers sufficient to cause infection.[67][68]

Wolbachia (bacteria infecting insects)
(now found in Cuba)

Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that infects mainly arthropod species, including a high proportion of insects, and also some nematodes.[1][2] It is one of the most common parasitic microbes, and is possibly the most common reproductive parasite in the biosphere.[3] Its interactions with its hosts are often complex, and in some cases have evolved to be mutualistic rather than parasitic. Some host species cannot reproduce, or even survive, without Wolbachia colonisation. One study concluded that more than 16% of neotropical insect species carry bacteria of this genus,[4] and as many as 25 to 70% of all insect species are estimated to be potential hosts.[5

Very weird:
    * horizontal gene transfer agent
    * because of quorum sensing, can be used actively as a counter some infections, like Zika)
    * ###

(dogs→) Cystic echinococcosis

Cystic echinococcosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases prevailing in different parts of Morocco [1, 2], as well as in other countries of North Africa and the Middle East [3]. Cystic echinococcosis is caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus [4] in humans as accidental hosts and a range of herbivores as natural intermediate hosts [5]. Dogs act as the definitive hosts and play an essential role in the dissemination of parasite eggs into the environment via their feces and contaminated fur [6–8]. In Morocco, areas with extensive sheep farming are severely affected since sheep are a very common intermediate host. The parasite’s cycle is poorly understood by the population, which severely affects compliance to the recommended hygiene measures aiming at reducing disease transmission [9]. Battelli [10] advocated for the integration of social, political and economic factors and argued for better use of available resources and adaptation of control strategies to the regional context.

(Mosquito→) Usutu virus
(found in Slo)

(SLO) https://nijz.si/nalezljive-bolezni/nalezljive-bolezni-od-a-do-z/usutu-virus-usuv/

Usutu virus (USUV) is a flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis complex, which is an emerging zoonotic arbovirus of concern because of its pathogenicity to humans and its similarity in ecology with other emerging arboviruses such as West Nile virus.[1] It mainly infects Culex mosquitoes and birds; humans form a dead-end host. First identified in South Africa in 1959, the virus has caused outbreaks in birds across Europe since 1996. Nearly 50 cases in humans have been reported as of 2019, mainly in Europe. These are predominantly asymptomatic, but some people experience neurological symptoms. 

(Mosquito→) Sindbis virus
(found in Slo)

Sindbis virus (SINV) is a member of the Togaviridae family, in the Alphavirus genus. The virus was first isolated in 1952 in Cairo, Egypt.[2] The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes (Culex and Culiseta). SINV is linked to Pogosta disease[3] (Finland), Ockelbo disease (Sweden) and Karelian fever (Russia). In humans, the symptoms include arthralgia, rash and malaise. Sindbis virus is widely and continuously found in insects and vertebrates in Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania. Clinical infection and disease in humans however has almost only been reported from Northern Europe (Finland, Sweden, Russian Karelia), where SINV is endemic and where large outbreaks occur intermittently. Cases are occasionally reported in Australia, China, and South Africa.[4]
SINV is an arbovirus, it is arthropod-borne, and it is maintained in nature by transmission between vertebrate (bird) hosts and invertebrate (mosquito) vectors. Humans are infected with Sindbis virus when bitten by an infected mosquito. 

Vibrio vulnificus

Present in marine environments such as estuaries, brackish ponds, or coastal areas, V. vulnificus is related to V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera.[3][4] At least one strain of V. vulnificus is bioluminescent.[5]


Vibrio vulnificus is an extremely virulent bacterium that can cause three types of infections: 
  • Acute gastroenteritis from eating raw or undercooked shellfish: V. vulnificus causes an infection often incurred after eating seafood, especially raw or undercooked oysters. It does not alter the appearance, taste, or odor of oysters.[8] Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
  • Necrotizing wound infections can occur in injured skin exposed to contaminated marine water. V. vulnificus bacteria can enter the body through open wounds when swimming or wading in infected waters,[4] or by puncture wounds from the spines of fishes such as stingrays.  People may develop a blistering dermatitis sometimes mistaken for pemphigus or pemphigoid.
  • Invasive sepsis can occur after eating raw or undercooked shellfish, especially oysters. V. vulnificus is 80 times more likely to spread into the bloodstream in people with compromised immune systems, especially those with chronic liver disease. When this happens, severe symptoms including blistering skin lesions and septic shock can sometimes lead to death.[9][10] This severe infection may occur regardless of whether the infection began from contaminated food or an open wound.[10]
Among healthy people, ingestion of V. vulnificus can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In someone with a compromised immune system, particularly those with chronic liver disease, it can infect the bloodstream, causing a severe and life-threatening illness characterized by fever and chills, decreased blood pressure (septic shock), and blistering skin lesions. While men have been shown to be more at risk from this infection than women, co-morbidities such as alcoholic cirrhosis and diseases affecting the endocrine system (diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) put a person far more at risk to develop infection from V. vulnificus. [11]
Needs iron

Iron: Growth of V. vulnificus is dependent on the amount of iron that is accessible to the bacteria.[18][19][20] The observed association of the infection with liver disease (associated with increased serum iron) might be due to the capability of more virulent strains to capture iron bound to transferrin.[12]

Infectious fungal spores (for lungs)

Case of "bad cigar"

If cigars were contaminated with fungal spores, and you smoked them, there would be a potential risk of inhaling those spores. Inhaling fungal spores can lead to various respiratory issues, depending on the type of fungus involved and the individual's immune system. Some fungi can cause lung infections, including:
* Aspergillosis: Aspergillus is a common fungus that can be found in the environment. Inhaling its spores can lead to aspergillosis, which can manifest as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), or invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), with varying degrees of severity.
* Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: Some people may develop hypersensitivity pneumonitis when exposed to certain fungal spores, particularly in occupational or environmental settings. This condition is an inflammatory lung disease that can result from repeated exposure to organic dust, including fungal spores.
* Fungal Lung Infections: Inhaling certain fungal spores, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems, can lead to fungal lung infections. These infections can be serious and may require medical treatment.
It's important to note that the presence of fungal spores in a cigar would be highly unusual and is not a common concern associated with smoking cigars. Cigars are typically made from tobacco leaves, and fungal contamination is not a typical issue during their production. However, if you have reason to believe that a cigar or any tobacco product has been exposed to mold or fungal contamination, it's best to avoid using it to reduce the risk of potential health problems.
In general, if you experience respiratory symptoms or have concerns about your lung health after inhaling or being exposed to potentially contaminated substances, it's advisable to seek medical attention for a proper evaluation and guidance on treatment if necessary.

(pneumonia causing)

Kaj vsebuje zdravilo Broncho-Munal
Učinkovina je lizat bakterij, ki najpogosteje povzročajo okužbe dihal:
    Diplococcus pneumoniae,
    Haemophilus influenzae,
    Klebsiella pneumoniae,
    Klebsiella ozaenae,
    Staphylococcus aureus,
    Streptococcus viridans,
    Streptococcus pyogenes,
    Neisseria catarrhalis.


Clostridium difficile (C. diff): The spores of C. difficile, a bacterium responsible for gastrointestinal infections, can survive on surfaces for extended periods and are resistant to many disinfectants.

(cats/###→) Bartonella → Bartonellosis


Bartonellosis is a group of bacterial infections that can be transmitted to humans from animals, mainly cats. There are over 20 species of Bartonella bacteria, but three are the most common causes of human infection in Europe:
  • Bartonella henselae: This is the most common cause of bartonellosis in Europe. It is usually transmitted by cat fleas, but can also be transmitted through cat bites or scratches.
  • Bartonella quintana: This bacterium is responsible for trench fever, a disease that was common in soldiers during World War I. It is transmitted by human body lice.
  • Bartonella bacilliformis: This bacterium is responsible for Oroya fever, a serious disease that is endemic to the Andes Mountains in South America. It is transmitted by sandflies.
In Europe, the prevalence of bartonellosis is estimated to be between 1% and 5% of the population. However, the actual number of cases is likely to be much higher, as many people infected with bartonellosis do not experience any symptoms.

The symptoms of bartonellosis can vary depending on the species of bacterium that is responsible for the infection. However, some of the most common symptoms include:
  • Fever
  • Flu-like symptoms, such as fatigue, muscle aches, and headache
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Skin lesions, such as red bumps or ulcers

In some cases, bartonellosis can cause more serious complications, such as:
  • Cat scratch disease: This is a common infection in children. It is usually caused by Bartonella henselae and is characterized by a small, red bump at the site of the scratch. The person may also experience fever, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
  • Bacilloid angiomatosis: This is a rare condition that is characterized by the growth of blood vessels in the skin and other organs. It can be caused by Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana.
  • Carrion's disease: This is a severe infection that is caused by Bartonella bacilliformis. It is endemic to the Andes Mountains in South America and is characterized by fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, and skin lesions.

If you are concerned that you may have bartonellosis, it is important to see a doctor. The doctor will likely do a physical examination and ask you about your symptoms. They may also order blood tests to check for the presence of bartonellosis antibodies.
Bartonellosis is usually treated with antibiotics. The type of antibiotic and the length of treatment will depend on the species of bacterium causing the infection and the severity of the symptoms.

In conclusion, bartonellosis is a group of bacterial infections that can be transmitted to humans from animals, mainly cats. It is a relatively common infection in Europe, with an estimated prevalence of between 1% and 5% of the population. The symptoms of bartonellosis can vary depending on the species of bacterium that is responsible for the infection, but some of the most common symptoms include fever, flu-like symptoms, swollen lymph nodes, and skin lesions. In some cases, bartonellosis can cause more serious complications, such as cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and Carrion's disease. If you are concerned that you may have bartonellosis, it is important to see a doctor.

(pigeon shit→) fungal spores → fungal pneumonias, ...

Here's a table outlining the typical incubation periods for some common diseases associated with exposure to pigeon droppings:
Histoplasmosis    Histoplasma capsulatum    3-17 days
Cryptococcosis    Cryptococcus neoformans    2-12 weeks
    ### another source casy 2-13 months!
    ### "Individual case incubation periods ranged from 2 to 11 months, with a median of 6 to 7 months"
Psittacosis    Chlamydia psittaci    5-14 days
Salmonellosis    Salmonella bacteria    6-72 hours
E. coli Infection    Escherichia coli bacteria    1-10 days
Ectoparasite-related diseases    Various ectoparasites    Varies depending on specific parasite and individual response
Respiratory Irritations    Allergens and irritants in droppings    Immediate to several days

(general info)
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gatti both spread through inhalation and cause a similar spectrum of illness. Despite lung being the common site where the pathogen enters the body meningoencephalitis is the most common clinical manifestation of the infection. Clinical features of cryptococcal meningitis typically manifest with in 1-2 weeks and include fever, malaise, headache, neck stiffness, photophobia, nausea, and vomiting.

The proportion of C. gattii disease representing acute infection versus reactivation of latent infection remains unknown; however, most reported cases of C. gattii infection appear to be primary infections.

The incubation period of C. gattii infection is not well-established.
Symptoms of C. gattii infection can appear between two and 13 months after breathing in the fungus, with an average of approximately six to seven months.
However, people can develop an infection as soon as two weeks or as late as three years after breathing in the fungus


The time it takes for a blood test to detect Cryptococcus neoformans antigens or antibodies after inhalation can vary.
However, in cases of acute infection, these antigens or antibodies may be detectable within days to weeks after exposure.
Specifically, blood tests such as cryptococcal antigen testing (often performed using a serum sample) can detect cryptococcal antigens relatively quickly. This test looks for the presence of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigens in the bloodstream, which are released by Cryptococcus neoformans during infection. In some cases, antigenemia (presence of antigens in the blood) may be detectable within a few days to a couple of weeks after exposure, depending on factors such as the individual's immune response and the severity of the infection.

(...→) Psitaccosis
aka Psittacosis     Chlamydiosis, Ornithosis, Parrot Fever


In birds, chlamydiosis results from infection by Chlamydophila psittaci (order Chlamydiales, family Chlamydiaceae). This organism, previously known as Chlamydia psittaci, is a Gram negative, coccoid, obligate intracellular bacterium. There are at least six avian serotypes.
Geographic Distribution
Avian chlamydiosis can be found worldwide. C. psittaci is particularly common in psittacine birds in tropical and subtropical regions. This disease is present in the United States. In a 1982 survey, C. psittaci was isolated from 20-50% of necropsied pet birds in California and Florida.
The incubation period in humans is 1 to 4 weeks; most infections become symptomatic after 10 days.

Listeria monocytogenes

https://www.celjske-mesnine.si/obvestilo/odpoklic-sunka-sendvic/ (20240717)
Razlogi neustreznosti: potrošnike obveščamo, da je bila v živilu ugotovljena prisotnost bakterije Listeria Razlogi neustreznosti: potrošnike obveščamo, da je bila v živilu ugotovljena prisotnost bakterije Listeria monocytogenes, ki lahko pri potrošnikih povzroči črevesne težave (driska, bruhanje,... ) ali simptome gripe/prehlada. V primeru ugotovljenih zdravstvenih težav se nemudoma obrnite na svojega zdravnika ali na epidemiologa regionalnega zavoda za zdravstveno varstvo., ki lahko pri potrošnikih povzroči črevesne težave (driska, bruhanje,... ) ali simptome gripe/prehlada. V primeru ugotovljenih zdravstvenih težav se nemudoma obrnite na svojega zdravnika ali na epidemiologa regionalnega zavoda za zdravstveno varstvo.

<----------------------- (NEW)+ UNSORTED HORROR ↑

*** ACTION !


* I have a few flea bites in ankles, omg what to do now ?

* How easy is it to get bedbugs if you don't sleep / sit down on textile in a home that's infested ?

* How to positively ID bedbugs vs fleas?

* Will cat/dog fleas only "bit a few times", or will they go and spread?:
    and, if you remove the cat from the apartment, are they really going to go on you? (and keep going?)

* What of these can you get from pets?:
    * Scabies: not really (different type)
    * [...]

<------------------- (new) basic questions ↑

These need checks [!!]

* keeping clothes:
    * separate clothes well (dirty / in use / clean)
    * keep clothes in well-sealed bags and don't let any shit out:
        < photo > .. also establish it's good enough?
    * [...]

* use Fenistil?:
    seems no side effects

* [...]

Prevention !

* do polyester covers help ???

* wearing specific clothes ("long socks, etc") ?

* how to evade pet contact? just don't let them rub on you eh?

* seems all of them generally hate some natural things (tea trea oil, lavender, etc)

"How to develop and popularise pervasive and general tests?"


Identification (by eye & microscope)

not the best but some ideas
doesn't include many important species


Very nice for larval types:
    (more a nice example of a guide, than useful in this case)

Identification (by bites)


Handbook for identification of fruitflies

* description for how to pin them!
* very good photographic doc, comparing different types!


Trap: bedbugs

L built one.
didn't catch anything.

Trap: mice

water bucket + cornflakes + drawbridge

Using salt?

Salt is abundand in Canaries... so can you use it as antipest?

YES and NO:
    * It is repellent and potentially prevents you from having roaches
    * BUT it does NOT KILL them
        --> """ ... it’s not really meant for major pest control. However, it’s still worth a try though. After all, it’s one of the most inexpensive alternatives to pesticides."""

What to do:
    * """All you have to do is sprinkle the condiment onto roach infested areas to keep them from coming back. Toss salt on your toolshed, car, basement and attic to stop those insects from nesting there. You can also sprinkle the condiment all over your kitchen, so your food won’t get contaminated by roaches."""

[!*!→] MEDICAL— Rehydration (common for viral diseases)

Fruit juices both provide water and electrolytes, and contain many essential vitamins and minerals, help strengthen the immune system, increase the stability of the vessel walls, thereby reducing the risk of bleeding; Filtered water: Dengue patients need to rehydrate enough in the treatment of dengue fever, focus on ...

<------------------------- (new) ACTION! ↑

*** PAD

[!] How do hotels prevent bedbugs (etc) ???

Bed bug infestations in hotel rooms are are actually easier to eradicate in most cases. The rooms are not cluttered with clothes and personal belongings. You only have the structure and furniture. Once bed bugs are discovered, the rooms are treated in the same manner as one would treat a residential infestation. The process is just easier.

Important for #reconf !

[!!] Get a ultraviolet light


"""Secondly an ultra violet certainly allows for better detection of bed bugs but a normal bright LED flashlight is a huge help as well"""


"""Contrary to what you may have read elsewhere an ultra-violet light does not make it easier to spot bedbugs. I have personally verified this!"""

OR ...



What's the right light nm?
    * ~395nm (was sold somewhere)
    * wood lamp ~365nm ?
        """Woodova svetilka je ultravijolična svetilka s steklenim filtrom, ki prepušča le UV svetlobo z valovno dolžino 365 nm."""

[!] Antibugs -- Get a electric-zapper

Electric + UV light ?

Raising Cockroaches Intentionally

Check this tutorial : https://www.instructables.com/id/Raising-Cockroaches-Intentionally/

<---------------------------------- ### (NOW) REVIEWING

REPRESENTATION SYSTEMS -- Ecosystem/ecotype/bio-connectomes

#TODO !!!

Are they too big to show, again?

Research more on "natural enemies"

    * what is in currently in use?
    * any finished success stories?
    * what went wrong in past? what is said that could go wrong?
    * what are novel/suggested approaches?
    * what would be the smallest scale this could be done?

review !!!:
    * https://faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/biotact/detailed.htm
    * [...]

Evania appendigaster: Anti-cockroaches wasp

Evania appendigaster is a species of wasp in the family Evaniidae, the ensign wasps. Its native range is not known, but it likely originated in Asia. Today it occurs throughout the tropics and subtropics and in many temperate regions. It is a parasitoid wasp known for specializing on cockroaches.[1]
The wasp may be a candidate for use as an agent of biological pest control of cockroaches.[5][8] Control might be even better if the wasp were released along with A. hagenowii, which tends to have a higher rate of parasitism.[1]


another one!
"Ampulex compressa"

    * https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ovo_T0KqdYg
    * https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ySwuQhruBo
    * [...]


More on both species as "NATURAL ENEMIES":
    * https://faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/biotact/ch-27.htm
    * https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02377938
    * [...]

ECDC : European Center for Disease Control


ECDC "VectorNet" monitoring tool

ECDC and EFSA, through the VectorNet network, continues to improve the data collection for the maps. VectorNet is looking for vector-borne disease experts who are interested in sharing data on the distribution of mosquito, tick, sand fly and culicoides vectors. Experts can contact VectorNet at VectorNet@ecdc.europa.eu to join the network. They can also register and upload data to the common database through the VectorNet tool.
via https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/aedes-aegypti-current-known-distribution-europe-april-2017



    VectorNet is a joint initiative of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), which started in May 2014.    The Project supports the collection of data on vectors and pathogens in vectors, related to both animal and human health. 
    This tool allows you to submit information on the distribution of ticks, mosquitoes, sand flies and biting midges. 

sandboxes (and sand beaches) are disguisting because cats shit in them


zoonotic diseases...
* "Cutaneous larval migrans" (hookworms)
* "Visceral and ocular larval migrans" (roundworms) ... "toxocara"
* toxoplasmosis via oocysts

Report: CHT7A situation

    * We had stuff stored at a friend's place (#vaults)
    * Another friends staying there reported weird bites - not just fleas (there were many dogs and cats living there)
    * He suspected bed bugs (but never found any proof, and wouldn't know how)

    * After handling our stuff, we also had a period of weird bites
    * kept a high lookout, but never found any source
    * sprayed lots of tea tree oil
    * After some time, it seemed to all be fine
    * There seemed to be some recurrances when handling some packed-away items (sleeping bags), even though they have been washed in between

    * might have been just one loose flea at our place, or some stuck spiders
    * our friend probably just had fleas, or perhaps mites
    * there was poultry at the place, and goats:
        mites are possible!
    * anyway, everything resolved itself

Moths ?

* agricultural pest
* household pest



"Three new species and one new subspecies of Depressariinae (Lepidoptera) from Europe."
(found in Canarias)




A zoonosis (plural zoonoses, or zoonotic diseases) is an infectious disease caused by a pathogen (an infectious agent, such as a bacterium, virus, parasite or prion) that has jumped from a non-human animal (usually a vertebrate) to a human.[1][2][3] Typically, the first infected human transmits the infectious agent to at least one other human, who, in turn, infects others. 

Arbovirus (general term for arthropod-zoonotic diseases)


Arbovirus is an informal name used to refer to any viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. The word arbovirus is an acronym (arthropod-borne virus).[1] The word tibovirus (tick-borne virus) is sometimes used to more specifically describe viruses transmitted by ticks, a superorder within the arthropods

Arboviruses maintain themselves in nature by going through a cycle between a host, an organism that carries the virus, and a vector, an organism that carries and transmits the virus to other organisms.[8] For arboviruses, vectors are commonly mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies[9] and other arthropods that consume the blood of vertebrates for nutritious or developmental purposes

Bad for other species (plants, fish, livestock, ...)

ties to:
    #Gardening / agriculture / farming pests! ← +KuM !!!


https://entomology.ca.uky.edu/content/entomology-master-gardeners-introduction :
    >< gardening

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_louse :
    >< fish

In the late 19th century the phylloxera epidemic destroyed most of the vineyards for wine grapes in Europe, most notably in France.[4] Phylloxera was introduced to Europe when avid botanists in Victorian England collected specimens of American vines in the 1850s

<--------------- (new) pests for other species ↑

Insects fossils

are pests the same as they used to be?
what's the evolution scheme of those?
can we trace it back in fossils?
how do you study past pests in places with no pines (so no amber) like Canarias?


flies can spread mites

* i have this on microscope
* internet agrees

    * which ones could be dangerous
    * is this like hitch-hiking? how does it happen?
    * [...]

g: "bug indentification forum"

continue !!!

on ivermectin

Ivermectin, ‘Wonder drug’ from Japan: the human use perspective
pretty amazing story!

Discovered in the late-1970s, the pioneering drug ivermectin, a dihydro derivative of avermectin—originating solely from a single microorganism isolated at the Kitasato Intitute, Tokyo, Japan from Japanese soil—has had an immeasurably beneficial impact in improving the lives and welfare of billions of people throughout the world. Originally introduced as a veterinary drug, it kills a wide range of internal and external parasites in commercial livestock and companion animals. It was quickly discovered to be ideal in combating two of the world’s most devastating and disfiguring diseases which have plagued the world’s poor throughout the tropics for centuries. It is now being used free-of-charge as the sole tool in campaigns to eliminate both diseases globally. It has also been used to successfully overcome several other human diseases and new uses for it are continually being found. This paper looks in depth at the events surrounding ivermectin’s passage from being a huge success in Animal Health into its widespread use in humans, a development which has led many to describe it as a “wonder” drug.
Keywords: avermectin, ivermectin, mode of action, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, drug resistance

Fibiger 1926 Nobel prize for medicine fail : "Roundworms causing cancer"

After his death, independent researches proved that G. neoplasticum cannot cause cancer. Tumours and cancer produced by Fibiger were due to vitamin A deficiency. Historical reassessment of Fibiger's data revealed that he had mistaken non-cancerous tumours for cancerous tumours. 


BIOWEAPONS/USSR— Biological warfare

Over the course of its history, the Soviet program is known to have weaponized and stockpiled the following eleven bio-agents[3] (and to have pursued basic research on many more): 
  • Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)[4]
  • Yersinia pestis (plague)[4]
  • Francisella tularensis (tularemia)
  • Burkholderia mallei (glanders)
  • Brucella sp. (brucellosis)
  • Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE)
  • Botulinum toxin
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B
  • Smallpox[4]
  • Marburg virus
  • Orthopoxvirus[4]These programs became immense and were conducted at dozens of secret sites employing up to 65,000 people.[1] Annualized production capacity for weaponized smallpox, for example, was 90 to 100 tons.

BIOWEAPONS— "Chimera Project"

The Chimera Project attempted in the late 1980s and early 1990s to combine DNA from Venezuelan equine encephalitis and smallpox at Obolensk, and Ebola virus and smallpox at Vector. The existence of these chimeric viruses programmes was one reason why Alibek defected to the United States in 1992. Journal articles by scientists suggest that in 1999 the experiments were still being continued.[27][43]

BIOWEAPONS— Brucellosis

(mentioned by Lavrov as being investigated in US/Ukraine biolabs, 2022/03)


see → 🔗medical

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metronidazole (Flagyl/Efloran)
Metronidazole, marketed under the brand name Flagyl among others, is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication.[4] It is used either alone or with other antibiotics to treat pelvic inflammatory disease, endocarditis, and bacterial vaginosis.[4] It is effective for dracunculiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and amebiasis.[4] It is an option for a first episode of mild-to-moderate Clostridium difficile colitis if vancomycin or fidaxomicin is unavailable.[4][5] Metronidazole is available by mouth, as a cream, and by injection into a vein.[4]

Cronobacter sakazakii (in USA baby formula)

Califf also reported leaks in the roof, standing water in the factory and two instances in the past, based on internal company documents, when finished baby formula was known to have “environmental contamination with Cronobacter sakazakii.” The FDA commissioner claimed that these poisoned batches, which were produced by Abbott Labs in 2019 and 2020, had been destroyed by the company.

"Valley fever" (fungal, by Coccidioidomycosis)


Valley fever is an infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides. The scientific name for Valley fever is “coccidioidomycosis,” and it’s also sometimes called “San Joaquin Valley fever” or “desert rheumatism.” The term “Valley fever” usually refers to Coccidioides infection in the lungs, but the infection can spread to other parts of the body in severe cases (this is called “disseminated coccidioidomycosis”).

[s!!] great veterinary list

5. člen
V tretjo skupino spadajo bolezni, ki so zelo nalezljive. Širjenje teh bolezni se med rejami lahko prepreči z ustreznimi veterinarsko-sanitarnimi ukrepi. Te bolezni povzročajo velike ekonomske škode in ogrožajo obstoj posamezne živalske vrste. Metode preprečevanja pojavov in širjenja ter izkoreninjenja teh bolezni so poznane in se jih da izvajati. 
Diagnostične preiskave, preventivne vakcinacije in izkoreninjenje z odškodninami za pobite živali ob izpolnitvi predpisanih pogojev se plačujejo iz proračuna Republike Slovenije. V primeru okuženosti reje se živali neškodljivo uničijo in se prepove promet z živalmi, izdelki in surovinami živalskega izvora. 
Bolezni tretje skupine so: 
– afriška prašičja kuga – Pestis africana suum, 
– atipična kokošja kuga – Morbus Newcastle (Newcastle disease), 
– bolezen Aujeszkega – Morbus Aujeszky, 
– bolezen modrikastega jezika – Febris catarrhalis ovium (Blue tongue), 
– bruceloza – Brucellosis (B. melitensis, abortus in suis), 
– goveja kuga – Pestis bovina (Rinderpest), 
– goveja spongiformna encefalopatija – Encephalophatia spongiformis bovum, 
– hemoragična septikemija pri govedu – Septicemia haemorrhagica bovum, 
– klasična prašičja kuga – Pestis suum, 
– kokošja kuga – Pestis avium, 
– konjska kuga – Pestis equorum, 
– kuga drobnice – Pestis pecorum, 
– mrzlica doline Rift – Hepatitis infectiosa enzootica bovum et ovium, 
– nalezljiva kuga goved – Pleuropneumonia contagiosa bovum, 
– slinavka in parkljevka – Aphtae epizooticae, 
– spolna kuga konj – Exanthema coitale paralyticum (Durina), 
– vezikularna bolezen prašičev – Morbus vesicularis suum, 
– vezikularni stomatitis – Stomatitis vesicularis in 
– vozličasti dermatitis – Dermatitis nodosa.         

6. člen
V skupino zoonoz spadajo bolezni, ki so nevarne ljudem in živalim in se po naravni poti prenašajo z živali – vretenčarjev na ljudi in obratno. Glede na lastnosti ter pogoje so lahko razvrščene v prvo, drugo in tretjo skupino bolezni. 
– bruceloza – Brucellosis (razen B. Ovis), 
– cisticerkoza – Cysticercosis, 
– ehinokokoza – Echinococosis, 
– leptospiroza – Leptospirosis, 
– listerioza – Listeriosis, 
– mikrosporija – Microsporiasis, 
– mrzlica doline Rift – Hepatitis infectiosa enzootica bovum et ovium, 
– mrzlica Q – Q febris, 
– okamenela zalega – Aspergillosis apium, 
– psitakoza – Psittacosis, 
– rdečica – Erysipelas, 
– salmoneloza – Salmonellosis, 
– smrkavost – Malleus, 
– steklina – Rabies (Lyssa), 
– toksoplazmoza – Toxoplasmosis, 
– trihineloza –. Trichinellosis, 
– trihofitija – Trichophytia bovis, 
– tuberkuloza – Tuberculosis in 
– tularemija – Tularemia.                                                                 

7. člen
Kužne bolezni, ki jih je treba ugotoviti takoj oziroma je treba takoj ugotoviti vzrok pogina, so: 
– vse bolezni iz tretje skupine in 
– vse zoonoze.         

[!!*] Dengue in Europe

There were 130 locally acquired cases of dengue fever in the EU last year, compared to 71 cases in 2022, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) revealed this week. 
There has been a recent spike in cases in Europe, with the invasive mosquito species found in 13 EU countries.

The yellow fever mosquito - also a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses - made its way to Cyprus in 2022. 

Helicobacter pylori → stomach cancers

Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, flagellated, helical bacterium. Mutants can have a rod or curved rod shape, and these are less effective.[1][2] Its helical body (from which the genus name, Helicobacter, derives) is thought to have evolved in order to penetrate the mucous lining of the stomach, helped by its flagella, and thereby establish infection.[3][2] The bacterium was first identified as the causal agent of gastric ulcers in 1983 by the Australian doctors Barry Marshall and Robin Warren.[4][5]

causing cancer
Helicobacter pylori is a class 1 carcinogen, and potential cancers include gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas and gastric cancer.[9][10] Infection with H. pylori is responsible for around 89 per cent of all gastric cancers, and is linked to the development of 5.5 per cent of all cases of cancer worldwide.[12][13] H. pylori is the only bacterium known to cause cancer.[14]


Slovenia 2024 program of screening for mid 30s people.

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