𓃠 cats → shit → toxoplasma gondii → you → Toxoplasmosis

< RFC+ >

Cats gave you a mind control parasite, and it's making 50% of the world's population reactionary.

    20190801 stub
    20200410 overview + pre-pub
    20200812 touch
    20201001 touch
    20240527 overview/mimafication

Ties to:

Table of Contents
1 ***
1.1 101!/REF— (Selected news / popular science press)
1.2 101/EFFECT— Has an acute & a yet-incurable chronic phase (=stays forever)
1.3 101— Spread in almost half of global population!
1.4 101— Reproduces only in cats
1.5 101/NEURO!!/EFFECT/REF!— Has proven mental & behavioural effect (depression, anxiety, bipolar)
1.6 101/EFFECT/NEURO/OUTDOOR— Rats become unafraid of cat's scent
1.7 101/EFFECT/NEURO— ... actually become sexually attracted to it
1.8 101/EFFECT/NEURO— Distrubs GABA → depression, schizophrenia, bipolar, anxiety ...
1.9 101/EFFECT/NEURO— Increases the reaction time of infected subjects
1.10 101/EFFECT/NEURO— Quick acute phase, followed by a chronic phase; effects get worse with time
1.11 101!/EFFECT/NEURO— More likely to major in business / management
1.12 101/EFFECT— Changes dominance-expression, even facial form
1.13 EFFECT/REF— Deadly to immunocompromised & fetuses
1.14 101/SPREAD— Eeeewww, "500 million oocysts"
1.15 TEST/102/EFFECT— Is dependent on blood type
1.16 [!!¶] CURE/TESTING— How to get tested? Costs? Sense?
1.17 [!] Q— Are there other diseases like this?
1.18 [s!!] ACTION— How should society deal with this?
1.19 [!] ACTION/POSTCATS— Register & routinely test all cats
1.20 [!*] Q— How does it get into "raw meat" - the other major vector?
1.21 [!!**] PROBLEM/PR— How to communicate this with "cat people"?
1.22 [!!**] PROBLEM/TOTALISM!— The public & research attention is completely disproportionate
1.23 [m!!!] Q— Could the chronic phase be treated or cured?
1.24 [m!!] POSTMEDIA— The false "nothing to worry about"
1.25 [!!*] CONSPIRACY/Q— Does it help explain the cultural co-development of cats & people ?
1.26 [!*t] LOL/CONSPIRACY— Cats & the parasite are probably alien invader co-organisms, wielding total influence over all world affairs ;-)
1.27 [×?!*] WU/POLEMICS?— Please just kill your cat ;3
1.28 [sm!] CONSPIRACY— (raw anti-toxo rant, 2020)
1.29 [m!*] SOURCE/POLEMICS— David chats
1.30 [s!!**] PREVENT/REF— Transmission: How you get this
1.31 [a] REF?/MECHANICS— ()
1.32 [!!*] SOURCE— Jaroslav Flegr
1.33 [!] EFFECT— Ocular toxoplasmosis (EYE/retina)
1.34 [!!] NEURO/EXPAND/ANTIPEST— More mind-altering parasites?
1.35 [!!] ACTION/POSTMEDIA— Prevent misreporting
1.36 [!] POSTCATS/WU/LOL— "Better Without Cats"
1.37 [!!**] REF!/COUNTER— "Most people don't get it directly from cats"
1.38 [s!] SOURCE— (HN likes to talk about it)
1.39 [a!!] 102/REF!/EFFECT//OUTDOOR/NEURO!— Wolves & mind control (study)
1.40 [a] REF/LOL/DEFLECTION— "But these are western studies" ... "OK they're Chinese but they're for a western journal" ... "Yeah send it to me in Chinese. No I don't read Chinese".
1.41 [!!**] REF!/COUNTER— ...Maybe not?
1.42 [!!] 102/REF/EFFECT/OUTDOOR— Cat feces runoff makes it to the sea; kills sea otters & penguins; also impacts birds
1.43 [!!*] 102/REF/EFFECT/OUTDOOR— Effect on birds
1.44 [!] REF/MECHANICS/NEURO— "It changes immune processes"? → and via that also depression
1.45 [!!] 101/PREVENT— Personal precautions / instructions
1.46 [w!!**] CURE— Vaccination?
1.47 [a!!!*] 102/REF/EFFECT/NEURO/WU/CONSPIRACY!— "Toxoplasmosis causes capitalism"
1.48 [!!*] EFFECT/NEURO/REF— Strongly linked with schizophrenia
1.49 [!*] TREAT/REF— Drug cocktails
1.50 [w!!] 102/PR— Public consensus on basic effects and relevance is shifting
1.51 [!] EFFECT/OUTDOOR— Effect on Foxes
1.52 LEGAL— Legislation in Slovenia


101!/REF— (Selected news / popular science press)

* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an apicomplexan.[3] Infections with toxoplasmosis are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric and behavioral conditions.[8]

* https://news.ki.se/how-the-common-cat-parasite-gets-into-the-brain
"A study led by researchers from Karolinska Institutet now demonstrates for the first time how the parasite enters the brain to influence its host." (2012)

* https://news.cision.com/karolinska-institutet/r/how-the-common--cat-parasite--gets-into-the-brain,c9344066
"Toxoplasma is a common ‘cat parasite’, and has previously been in the spotlight owing to its observed effect on risk-taking and other human behaviours. To some extent, it has also been associated with mental illness."

* https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/toxoplasmosis-risk-wolves-cats-mice
(2022/11) good popular intro

* https://bigthink.com/stephen-johnson/study-students-infected-with-cat-parasite-more-likely-to-major-in-business
"T. gondii, which has been called the “mind-control” parasite by some, has in recent years become the main villain of a strange theory, one which argues that the parasite is subtly altering connections in our brains, “changing our response to frightening situations, our trust in others, how outgoing we are, and even our preference for certain scents,” as Kathleen McAuliffe wrote for The Atlantic."

* https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/03/how-your-cat-is-making-you-crazy/308873/
"Starting in the early 1990s, he began to suspect that a single-celled parasite in the protozoan family was subtly manipulating his personality, causing him to behave in strange, often self-destructive ways. And if it was messing with his mind, he reasoned, it was probably doing the same to others."

* https://abcbirds.org/program/cats-indoors/cats-and-diseases/

* https://www.edge.org/conversation/toxo
The parasite my lab is beginning to focus on is one in the world of mammals, where parasites are changing mammalian behavior. It's got to do with this parasite, this protozoan called Toxoplasma

* https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-09-toxoplasma-cat-poo-parasite-infects.html
"In some parts of Europe, such as France, around 50% of the population play host to the parasite"
(This explains everything)

<------------------------- (new) selected resources ↑

101/EFFECT— Has an acute & a yet-incurable chronic phase (=stays forever)

101— Spread in almost half of global population!

101— Reproduces only in cats

About 20 percent of the American public is infected with Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that can infect birds and most other animals but that reproduces sexually only in cats.

Toxoplasmosis is caused by the extremely common Toxoplasma gondii parasite. Between 30 and 50 per cent of the global population is thought to be infected, and an estimated twenty per cent or so of people in Sweden

101/NEURO!!/EFFECT/REF!— Has proven mental & behavioural effect (depression, anxiety, bipolar)

A number of studies also confirm that mental diseases like schizophrenia, depression and anxiety syndrome are more common in people with toxoplasmosis, while others suggest that toxoplasmosis can influence how extroverted, aggressive or risk-inclined an individual's behaviour is.

"""Looking at humans, studies using the Cattell's 16 Personality Factor questionnaire found that infected men scored lower on Factor G (superego strength/rule consciousness) and higher on Factor L (vigilance) while the opposite pattern was observed for infected women.[108] Such men were more likely to disregard rules and were more expedient, suspicious, and jealous. On the other hand, women were more warm-hearted, outgoing, conscientious, and moralistic.""" (Flegr, 2007)

"""Those with more severe infection were three times more likely to have developed generalized anxiety."""

We found that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with a 2 times greater odds of GAD (odds ratio (OR), 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–4.53) after adjusting for age, gender, race, income, marital status, and medication. Individuals in the highest antibody level category had more than 3 times higher odds of GAD (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.41–7.97).###

""""Another population-representative study with 7440 people in the United States found that Toxoplasma infection was 2.4 fold more common in people who had a history of manic and depression symptoms (bipolar disorder Type 1) compared to the general population"""

goes into the mechanics ("Neuroinflammation with Microvascular Dysfunction")

Toxoplasma gondii-induced neuronal alterations
(very mechanical)
Accumulating evidence supports the idea that chronic
T. gondii infection affects neuronal function and structure
and may, thus, uniquely interfere with the host’s behav-
iour. The profound neuronal alterations that can be elic-
ited by the persisting parasites are investigated and
described by several in vitro and in vivo approaches. Con-

(similar to above, very mechanical)

101/EFFECT/NEURO/OUTDOOR— Rats become unafraid of cat's scent

It has, for example, already been observed that rats become unafraid of cats and even attracted by their scent, which makes them easy prey
Eeeeewwww - actually there's more:

101/EFFECT/NEURO— ... actually become sexually attracted to it

One study, for example, describes how rats infected with T. gondii were no longer scared off by cat urinethey were instead sexually aroused by it.

101/EFFECT/NEURO— Distrubs GABA → depression, schizophrenia, bipolar, anxiety ...

GABA is a signal substance that, amongst other effects, inhibits the sensation of fear and anxiety. Disturbances of the GABA system are seen in people with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar diseases, anxiety syndrome and other mental diseases.
Works via GABA.

101/EFFECT/NEURO— Increases the reaction time of infected subjects

"Researchers have found that the Toxoplasma parasites may affect human behavior and personality, for example"

Toxoplasmosis increases the reaction time of infected subjects, which can explain the increased probability of traffic accidents in infected subjects reported in three retrospective and one very large prospective case-control study
"""Infected subjects have a 2.65 times higher risk of getting into a traffic accident."""

Higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis in victims of traffic accidents suggest increased risk of traffic accident in Toxoplasma-infected inhabitants of Istanbul and its suburbs (2009)

(Flegr, 2002)
The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 30–60% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in infected subjects. It is not known, however, whether the changes observed in the laboratory influence the performance of subjects in real-life situations.

101/EFFECT/NEURO— Quick acute phase, followed by a chronic phase; effects get worse with time

Most of these [behavioural] differences increase with the length of time since the onset of infection, suggesting that Toxoplasma influences human personality rather than human personality influencing the probability of infection

101!/EFFECT/NEURO— More likely to major in business / management

"""Another study found that students infected with Toxoplasma were 40% more likely to major in business at university, and 70% more likely to emphasize "management and entrepreneurship" in their business studies."""
"Among 197 participants of entrepreneurship events, T. gondii exposure was correlated with being 1.8 times more likely to have started their own business"
fuck me, we need to build small guillotines

101/EFFECT— Changes dominance-expression, even facial form
* "Toxoplasma-infected male students are about 3 cm taller than Toxoplasma-free subjects and their faces are rated by women as more masculine and dominant. These differences may be caused by an increased concentration of testosterone"

EFFECT/REF— Deadly to immunocompromised & fetuses

It is, however, known that toxoplasmosis in the brain can be fatal in people with depleted immune defence and in fetuses, which can be infected through the mother.
Because of this risk, pregnant women are recommended to avoid contact with cat litter trays.

But a first infection during pregnancy will cross the placenta, Dr. Grigg said, potentially leading to fetal death, stillbirth or problems in a newborn, including an enlarged head, cognitive deficits and almost certainly eye disease. Newborns born to mothers without previous infection are also vulnerable to the parasite, he said.

The first conclusive identification of T. gondii in humans was in an infant girl delivered full term by Caesarean section on May 23, 1938, at Babies' Hospital in New York City.[30]  The girl began having seizures at three days of age, and doctors identified lesions in the maculae of both of her eyes. When she died at one month of age, an autopsy was performed. Lesions discovered in her brain and eye tissue were found to have both free and intracellular T. gondii'.[30] Infected tissue from the girl was homogenized and inoculated intracerebrally into rabbits and mice; they then developed encephalitis. Later, congenital transmission was confirmed in many other species, particularly infected sheep and rodents. 

mechanics of congential toxoplasmosis
* "Around 1.9% of women of childbearing age become infected for the first time during pregnancy"
* "Importantly, the parasite is able to cross the placental barrier during maternal parasitemia and subsequently infect the embryo/fetus after primary infection of the mother1,3,17. In healthy and immunocompetent adults, the infection is usually asymptomatic. However, congenital infection may lead to severe symptoms in the offspring, especially in the brain. The clinical picture of human congenital toxoplasmosis depends on the time of infection during pregnancy. An infection in early gestation, especially in the first trimester may lead to abortion."
* ###

101/SPREAD— Eeeewww, "500 million oocysts"

“If they’re able to keep their cat inside while they’re pregnant and give the cat tin food that’s cooked, then they don’t need to worry,” she said. “The cat that’s a problem is the feral hunting cat or cat fed uncooked meat.”
An acutely infected cat or kitten can excrete in two weeks up to 500 million oocysts — the infectious form of the parasite — which can remain infectious in soil and water for up to a year, Dr. McLeod said. A person can get infected from even one of these oocysts. “It’s an amazingly effective dissemination system,” she said.

TEST/102/EFFECT— Is dependent on blood type

Finally, five independent studies performed in blood donors, pregnant women and military personnel showed that RhD blood group positivity, especially in RhD heterozygotes, protects infected subjects against various effects of latent toxoplasmosis, such as the prolongation of reaction times, an increased risk of traffic accidents and excessive pregnancy weight gain
[!!] figure out what this is, how common/rare it is, how to establish, and if I have it

[!!¶] CURE/TESTING— How to get tested? Costs? Sense?

Test was included for free in a Belgian blood test for a comrade (2020-09). She was negative!

[!] Q— Are there other diseases like this?

in the sense of:
    * parasitic zoonosis
    * we are discovering mental effects on behaviour
    * we are discovering "chronic phases"
    * [...]

[s!!] ACTION— How should society deal with this?

A) outlaw cats lol

B) informed consent for anyone having to deal with this:
     "nobody told me about this when I was asked to look over cats"

C) pretend this is not fucked up, and ignore it

[!] ACTION/POSTCATS— Register & routinely test all cats

[!*] Q— How does it get into "raw meat" - the other major vector?

[!!**] PROBLEM/PR— How to communicate this with "cat people"?

"Cat people" seem to know nothing about it.

[!!**] PROBLEM/TOTALISM!— The public & research attention is completely disproportionate

Why is there no public health concern?

How exactly are health services failing to identify & respond to this, what kind of protocols are in place for evaluation & reaction to public health threats?


[m!!!] Q— Could the chronic phase be treated or cured?

https://www.thesgc.org/news/Nature_Toxoplasmosis ?
    * does it always get into this phase, or can this be prevented?
    * can it be cured / rid of?
    * can the effects, spread, or current phase be established?

[m!!] POSTMEDIA— The false "nothing to worry about"

“It is quite possibly the most successful parasite on the planet,” Dr. Grigg said,
but if you have a working immune system, “you really have almost nothing to worry about.”

[!!*] CONSPIRACY/Q— Does it help explain the cultural co-development of cats & people ?

[!*t] LOL/CONSPIRACY— Cats & the parasite are probably alien invader co-organisms, wielding total influence over all world affairs ;-)

aka, "They Live" (1988)

[×?!*] WU/POLEMICS?— Please just kill your cat ;3
A short reality-check for cat people, to reshape how they see their beloved disease vectors.
At least for a few moments, thereafter as an exercise in cognitive dissonance.

Cat people! Get your shit together.
Imagine for a second that you are keeping a pet goldfish at your place. I tell you that it is scientifically established keeping this fish will pass onto you, and others visiting your place, a brain parasite with newly discovered, odd cognitive effects, is linked to schizophrenia, and behavioural changes. They get worse with time. Because of people like you keeping fish, up to half of people worldwide are affected by it. Yes really, we establish the fact. You are looking at the creature, concerned, scared and repelled. And you are flushing that fucking pet goldfish into the toilet, or calling somebody to get that fucking thing out of your living space. You get tested, you call and make sure your past visitors are alright.
Howver here you are, a cat owner, not feeling any concern either for yourself or others. Isn't this disinterest weird? They have passed onto you a parasite you will be carrying for life, making you (same as infected rats) attracted to the smell of their piss - to like having cats around.
You need to kick the disease vector out, and stop infecting people.
You get annoyed by the messenger.

[sm!] CONSPIRACY— (raw anti-toxo rant, 2020)

I think the idea of cats, home-liness, domesticity and ofc toxoplasma are all the same kompakt
These traits are all basically synonymous with cog dissonance enablers  ...
The fact that I am yet to find a single "cat person" that would be generally worried, even though I mean, come on read this stuff, it is total wtf, ... 
...You are about to just shrug it off with a short cynical response? 😺

[m!*] SOURCE/POLEMICS— David chats

* instagram david<>eva 20190801
* david 20200616/17 (screenshots)

[s!!**] PREVENT/REF— Transmission: How you get this

The consumption of raw or undercookedmeat containing parasitesis the cause of most infections in humans. Soiled or inadequately washed vegetables 
and fruits, and very rarely drinking water, can also be a source of infection if they have been contaminated by parasites.


In the Czech Republic, the currently most common sources of infection are gloveless gardening and the consumption of raw, insufficiently washed vegetables (carrot, radishes). Oocysts may also be contained in the soil that your cat or dog brings to your house on their paws and in their fur. In many countries, the consumption of raw or semi‑raw meat is an important source of infection. However, this is not true for the Czech Republic because the infected meat doesn’t usually come from industrial production. It is often domestic production meat or game that contains the parasite, in which case you can become infected simply by manipulating with the meat or from vegetables cut on a cutting board that had previously been used for the meat


HUMAN INFECTION: Cats can pose a risk for humans when they shed oocysts. However, this happens only once in their lifetime, usually only for 3-10 days after ingestion of tissue cysts. Thus, cats that have antibodies to T gondii no longer shed oocysts, and do not pose a risk to humans.

[!!*] SOURCE— Jaroslav Flegr


But Jaroslav Flegr, a biologist who’s perhaps done more than anyone to advance the theory that parasites could be quietly pulling the strings of our behavior, thinks there’s a different reason why scientists are quick to doubt the body of research. 
“There is strong psychological resistance to the possibility that human behavior can be influenced by some stupid parasite,” he told The Atlantic. “Nobody likes to feel like a puppet. Reviewers [of my scientific papers] may have been offended.”

"Flegr maintains that toxoplasmosis might increase the rate of traffic accidents by as much as one million collisions per year"



---------------- 2024, new Flegr

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32315924/ (2022)
it has been suggested that toxoplasmosis could also be transmitted sexually from infected men to uninfected women. In this article, we discuss and present evidence for an alternative hypothesis, which suggests that toxoplasmosis could be transmitted by oral sex (via fellatio) from an infected man to an uninfected person (male or female), especially if the uninfected individual swallows the infected ejaculate.
route of toxoplasmosis transmission could be experimentally verified by force-feeding laboratory mice with the ejaculate of infected men

* mentions https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytomegalovirus
* https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38787216/
* ###

[!] EFFECT— Ocular toxoplasmosis (EYE/retina)

Finally, the last form of toxoplasmosis is ocular toxoplasmosis with retinal damage mostly, but not exclusively, in consequence of congenial infection. The infection may cause repeated inflammation of the retina, leading to the loss of sight in the affected eye.

[!!] NEURO/EXPAND/ANTIPEST— More mind-altering parasites?

Thus, it is thought that the thorny-headed worm physiologically changes the behavior of the Gammarus lacustris in order to enter its final host, the bird. 
(found via surfineg Fish Parasites)

What other behaviour altering parasites are there?
Are we on top of this at all?
FInd a reference / popular work for this !!!

[!!] ACTION/POSTMEDIA— Prevent misreporting
aka "Fake news"

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/08/well/family/how-worried-should-cat-owners-be-about-toxoplasmosis.html :
"""The only people who face a risk from Toxoplasma gondii are pregnant women who have not previously been infected"""
1) it's proven it influences behaviour in other mammals
2) it's killing many people every year because of traffic accidents

[!] POSTCATS/WU/LOL— "Better Without Cats"

HAHAHA. I pick my battles!! But I really do hope there will be a cure for this, I will be monitoring the behavioral research, and encouraging people to test & perhaps use this bizarre insight about our mental machines to control their impulses and states ...
And maybe some day soon we figure it all out - that it was the cats that got us all catty in the first place, with the rise of grain collecting, mice attracting, warring civilizations, and we get rid of them, and get peace on Earth

[!!**] REF!/COUNTER— "Most people don't get it directly from cats"

(random person):
Cat ownership is one of the least likely ways to become infected with toxoplasmosis - far more likely is contact with undercooked meat. In fact most studies suggest it is not an important risk factor at all.

Maybe, but *it only multiplies in cats*, so wtf.

[s!] SOURCE— (HN likes to talk about it)


Case in point is Hawaii; attempts to bring the wild cat populations under control are immediately met with resistance from animal rights groups.  This is in spite of the ongoing destruction to wild bird populations.  One also has to be extremely careful about washing local vegetables, due to cats spreading toxoplasma.


[a!!] 102/REF!/EFFECT//OUTDOOR/NEURO!— Wolves & mind control (study)

via https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=33740824
plus discussion

[a] REF/LOL/DEFLECTION— "But these are western studies" ... "OK they're Chinese but they're for a western journal" ... "Yeah send it to me in Chinese. No I don't read Chinese".

"Toxoplasma gondii infection in pet cats and their owners in northeastern China:an important public health concern" (2022)

[!!**] REF!/COUNTER— ...Maybe not?



Even though "living in a household with a cat that used a litter box was strongly associated with infection,"[31] and that living with several kittens or any cat under one year of age has some significance,[55] several other studies claim to have shown that living in a household with a cat is not a significant risk factor for T. gondii infection.[56][66]
In total, 62 sera out of 306 examined pet cats (20.3%) and 18.1% (72/397) pet cat owners were seropositive for T. gondii, respectively. The results of statistical analysis showed that both pet cats and their owners from rural area had significantly higher T. gondii seroprevalence than those from urban area (p < 0.001). Moreover, owners of pet cas who have the knowledge of zoonotic protozoan diseases had a significantly lower T. gondii seroprevalence than those without the knowledge of zoonotic protozoan diseases (p < 0.001).


"""As mentioned before, these results of increased proportions of people seropositive for the parasite in cases of these neurological disorders do not necessarily indicate a causal relationship between the infection and disorder. It is also important to mention that in 2016 a population-representative birth cohort study which was done, to test a hypothesis that toxoplasmosis is related to impairment in brain and behaviour measured by a range of phenotypes including neuropsychiatric disorders, poor impulse control, personality and neurocognitive deficits. The results of this study did not support the results in the previously mentioned studies, more than marginally. None of the P-values showed significance for any outcome measure. Thus, according to this study, the presence of T. gondii antibodies is not correlated to increase susceptibility to any of the behaviour phenotypes (except possibly to a higher rate of unsuccessful attempted suicide). This team did not observe any significant association between T. gondii seropositivity and schizophrenia. The team notes that the null findings might be a false negative due to low statistical power because of small sample sizes but against this weights that their setup should avoid some possibilities for errors in the about 40 studies that did show a positive correlation. They concluded that further studies should be performed.[121]"""

However, a recent study by Stock
et al. revealed a paradoxical improvement of cognitive con-
trol process in T. gondii-infected healthy individuals, argu-
ing therefore for a rather positive effect of infection on
cognitive capacities than the commonly held view that latent
infection is detrimental for the host (50, 51)


Using the modified agglutination test (MAT) to detect T. gondii antibodies, logistic regression analysis showed a higher prevalence of T. gondii infection among schizophrenia patients (10.04%) compared to healthy controls (3.74%). T. gondii infection emerged as a significant risk factor for schizophrenia (OR: 3.33; 95% CI: 1.68-6.61). However, our investigations did not reveal a robust association between T. gondii infection and other neuropsychiatric conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, dementia, anxiety, depression, neurodegenerative disorders, and peripheral neurological disorders such as neurological and plexus disorders.

[!!] 102/REF/EFFECT/OUTDOOR— Cat feces runoff makes it to the sea; kills sea otters & penguins; also impacts birds

"""Researchers have found that the oocytes of T. gondii can survive in seawater for at least 6 months, with the amount of salt concentration not affecting its life cycle. """

The seawater in California is thought to be contaminated by T. gondii oocysts that originate from cat feces, survive or bypass sewage treatment, and travel to the coast through river systems


An exhibit at the San Diego Natural History Museum states urban runoff with cat feces transports Toxoplasma gondii into the ocean, which can kill sea otters.[40]

Although under-studied, penguin populations, especially those that share an environment with the human population, are at-risk due to parasite infections, mainly Toxoplasmosis gondii.  The main subspecies of penguins found to be infected by T. gondii include wild Magellanic and Galapagos penguins, as well as blue and African penguins in captivity.[84] In one study, 57 (43.2%) of 132 serum samples of Magellanic penguins were found to have T. gondii. The island that the penguin is located, Magdalena Island, is known to have no cat populations, but a very frequent human population, indicating the possibility of transmission.[84]
Examination of black-footed penguins with toxoplasmosis reveals hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, cranial hemorrhage, and necrotic kidneys

[!!*] 102/REF/EFFECT/OUTDOOR— Effect on birds

Almost all species of birds that have been tested for Toxoplasma gondii have shown to be positive [...] 
T. gondii is considerably more severe in pigeons, particularly crown pigeons, ornamental pigeons, and pigeons originating from Australia and New Zealand. Typical onset is quick and usually results in death. Those that do survive often have chronic conditions of encephalitis and neuritis.[93] Similarly, canaries are observed to be just as severe as pigeons, but the clinical symptoms are more abnormal when compared to other species. Most of the infection affects the eye, causing blindness, choroidal lesions, conjunctivitis, atrophy of the eye, blepharitis, and chorioretinitis [93] Most of the time, the infection leads to death

(and, by cats directly)
That effort will require an ugly reality: the targeted killing of felines. “No one likes the idea of killing cats," Marra concludes in his book. "But sometimes, it is necessary."
Birds are critical,” he says. And outdoor cats, he and other ecologists have determined, are the leading human-influenced cause of dead birds.
No one knows exactly how many stray and feral cats stalk the U.S. They are, by nature, elusive and transient. In a 2013 study, Marra used an estimate of 30 to 80 million; the Humane Society estimates a more conservative 30 to 40 million.

The extinction of the Hawaiian crow, or ʻalalā, in 2002 is thought to have been caused in part by the spread of Toxoplasma via feral cats. “The diseases from cats is what’s going to change this whole equation,” Marra says.

[!] REF/MECHANICS/NEURO— "It changes immune processes"? → and via that also depression

"""Once it infects a normal host cell, it resists damage caused by the host's immune system, and changes the host's immune processes""" [...] """The parasite also influences an anti-apoptotic mechanism, allowing the infected host cells to persist and replicate. One method of apoptosis resistance is by disrupting pro-apoptosis effector proteins, such as BAX and BAK"""

"""Since the parasite can change the host's immune response, it may also have an effect, positive or negative, on the immune response to other pathogenic threats"""

The IFN-γ-mediated activation of IDO and TDO is an evolutionary mechanism that serves to starve the parasite, but it can result in depletion of tryptophan in the brain of the host.  IDO and TDO degrade tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine.  Administration of L-kynurenine is capable of inducing depressive-like behavior in mice.[52]  T. gondii infection has been demonstrated to increase the levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the brains of infected mice and in the brain of schizophrenic persons.[52] Low levels of tryptophan and serotonin in the brain were already associated with depression.[53]

[!!] 101/PREVENT— Personal precautions / instructions

Oocysts in cat feces take at least a day to sporulate (to become infectious after they are shed), so disposing of cat litter daily greatly reduces the chance of infectious oocysts developing. As these can spread and survive in the environment for months, humans should wear gloves when gardening or working with soil, and should wash their hands promptly after disposing of cat litter. These precautions apply to outdoor sandboxes/play sand pits, which should be covered when not in use. Cat feces should never be flushed down a toilet. [...] Ideally, cats should be kept indoors and fed only food that has low to no risk of carrying oocysts

"""It is suggested that fecal matter from litter boxes be collected daily, placed in a sealable bag, and disposed of in the trash rather than flushed in the toilet, so that water contamination is limited"""

"It has been found that the serum concentrations of T. gondii in the wildlife population were increased where there are high amounts of cat populations. This creates a dangerous environment for organisms that have not evolved in cohabitation with felines and their contributing parasites"

[w!!**] CURE— Vaccination?

"Research on human vaccines is ongoing"

[a!!!*] 102/REF/EFFECT/NEURO/WU/CONSPIRACY!— "Toxoplasmosis causes capitalism"

In 1914, Italian tropicalist Aldo Castellani "was first to suspect that toxoplasmosis could affect humans".[104]
haha #toread

"""Published research has also indicated that T. gondii infection could potentially promote changes in a person's political beliefs and values. Those who are infected with the parasite tend to exhibit a higher degree of "us versus them" thinking.[109][110][111]""" (2022→)
It is known that inflammation, and independently also resulting stress have very strong impacts on various motivational, emotional, and behavioral processes, for recent reviews, see, e.g., Moieni & Eisenberger, 2018; Lasselin et al., 2018; Gassen & Hill, 2019. It was suggested (Lindova et al., 2010; Martynowicz et al., 2019; Tedford & McConkey, 2017) that a large part of the observed toxoplasmosis-associated changes are not the products of the manipulative activity of Toxoplasma but a result of mild chronic stress associated with long-term parasitic infection and resulting health problems. It is known that many toxoplasmosis-associated changes go in opposite directions in the infected men and women (Lindová et al., 2006), and also that men and women cope with stress in diametrically opposed ways (Matud, 2004; Tamres et al., 2016). The stress-coping hypothesis suggests that many toxoplasmosis-associated changes, e.g., higher extroversion in infected women and lower in men, or lower suspiciousness of infected women and higher in suspiciousness of infected men (all in comparison to non-infected peers) can be interpreted as gender-dependent stress coping reaction.
Both infected men and women have lower conscientiousness (Lindová et al., 2012), lower generosity (Lindova et al., 2010) and have lower novelty-seeking (Flegr et al., 2003; Skallová et al., 2005). Men express lower and women higher altruism in the dictatorship game (Lindova et al., 2010). Infected subjects express higher entrepreneurship activity and have a higher tendency for risky behavior (Johnson et al., 2018), which might explain a higher risk of traffic accidents in the infected subjects (Flegr et al., 2002; Kocazeybek et al., 2009). Toxoplasma-infected women have also higher aggression (Cook et al., 2015) and self-aggression (Mathai et al., 2016; Postolache et al., 2021).

"""Toxoplasma-infected women expressed worse mental and physical health, and Toxoplasma-infected men worse physical health than their Toxoplasma-free peers"""

"In line with our results, previous studies (Flegr et al., 2003, Skallová et al., 2005) showed that infected subjects scored lower in novelty seeking, a factor that contributes to a conservative political opinion (Carney et al., 2008)."

"""Several studies have found that societies that are more affected by infectious pathogens also exhibit higher levels of conservative political attitudes such as xenophobia and traditionalism"""
Wow! [!!] #patterns

"""People infected with toxoplasmosis showed lower conscientiousness, generosity and novelty-seeking. Their findings also associated the infection with higher Tribalism, where loyalty to one’s tribe takes precedence. In a political context, these tribes can be defined on the basis of several factors, including race, caste, color and nationality. By drawing boundaries that separates “us” from “them”, tribalism perpetuates an ‘otherization’ of communities and groups whether on social, economic or political grounds.""" (Flegr)
"""Javanbhakt further wrote: “At a tribal level, people are more emotional and consequently less logical.” A Toxoplasma infection was also associated with lower Cultural Liberalism and lower Anti-authoritarianism."""

[!!*] EFFECT/NEURO/REF— Strongly linked with schizophrenia
(more research drops around 2022/12):
it implies directly almost 1% population, causing "150 billion $" damages per year
This parasite has been associated with many neurological disorders such as schizophrenia. In a meta-analysis of 23 studies that met inclusion criteria, the seroprevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in people with schizophrenia is significantly higher than in control populations (OR=2.73, P<0.000001).[116]

[!*] TREAT/REF— Drug cocktails

Currently recommended drugs in the treatment of toxoplasmosis act primarily against the tachyzoite form of T gondii; thus, they do not eradicate the encysted form (bradyzoite). Pyrimethamine is the most effective agent and is included in most drug regimens. Leucovorin (ie, folinic acid) should be administered concomitantly to prevent bone marrow suppression. Unless circumstances preclude using more than 1 drug, a second drug (eg, sulfadiazine, clindamycin) should be added.           [65, 66, 67] 
The efficacy of azithromycin, clarithromycin, atovaquone, dapsone, and cotrimoxazole is unclear; therefore, they should be used only as alternatives in combination with pyrimethamine. The most effective available therapeutic combination is pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine or trisulfapyrimidines (eg, a combination of sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, and sulfapyrazine). These agents are active against tachyzoites and are synergistic when used in combination. According to another in vitro study, ivermectin significantly inhibited replication of the tachyzoites of T gondii RH strain.           [68] 
The 6-week regimen is as follows:          
* Pyrimethamine (100mg loading dose orally followed by 25-50 mg/day) plus sulfadiazine (2-4 g/day divided 4 times daily)
Pyrimethamine (100-mg loading dose orally followed by 25-50 mg/day) plus clindamycin (300 mg orally 4 times daily)          
* Folinic acid (leucovorin) (10-25 mg/day) should be given to all patients to prevent hematologic toxicity of pyrimethamine          
* Trimethoprim (10 mg/kg/day) sulfamethoxazole (50 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks          

Sulfadiazine or clindamycin can be substituted for azithromycin 500 mg daily or atovaquone 750 mg twice daily in immunocompetent patients or in patients with a history of allergy to the former drugs.

[w!!] 102/PR— Public consensus on basic effects and relevance is shifting


(wiki cca 2019)
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.[3] Infections with toxoplasmosis usually cause no obvious symptoms in adults [...] Toxoplasmosis is usually spread by eating poorly cooked food that contains cysts, exposure to infected cat feces, and from an infected mother to her baby during pregnancy


(wiki cca 2024)
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an apicomplexan.[3] Infections with toxoplasmosis are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric and behavioral conditions.[8]


("results by year")

[!] EFFECT/OUTDOOR— Effect on Foxes

+ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271365088
Toxoplasmosis suspected to cause "dopey fox syndrome", a kind of encephalitis

The pooled T. gondii prevalence in foxes was estimated to be 39.6%. T. gondii has the highest prevalence in North America (51.2%), and lowest in Asia (8.3%).

With all the Toxo infected foxes we have dealt with over the years the condition left them almost like a domestic dog. Whilst this may be difficult to understand for anyone not involved with fox rescue, we have found in almost all cases of Toxo infection, the wild eyes that you would expect to see in a fox are gone and it is almost like looking into a domestic dogs eyes where Toxoplasmosis is involved. We have also found for whatever reason, the toxo foxes always seem to have longer than you would expect to see toe nails.
Although a Toxoplasmosis fox could never be released back into the wild (To date) we wondered as to whether we could give a good home to them

LEGAL— Legislation in Slovenia

(ACTIVE) Pravilnik o kužnih boleznih živali
== https://pisrs.si/pregledPredpisa?id=PRAV8019

(NOT ACTIVE) Pravilnik o razvrstitvi živalskih kužnih bolezni, določitvi načina in postopka obveščanja ter določitvi laboratorijskih testov in metod, stran 2828

(NOT ACTIVE, 1999—2007) Navodilo o ukrepih za ugotavljanje, preprečevanje in zatiranje toksoplazmoze (Toxoplasmosis)
(mostly: instruction, clinical effects on farm agricultural)

↓ replaced by

(ACTIVE) Pravilnik o boleznih živali + priloge
* je uvrščena med zoonoze
* mehanizem "Izbruha bolezni" [!!!*o]:
    * prijava:
        → priloga 12 (za mednarodno prijavljive...)
    * "ustanovitev Državnega središča za nadzor bolezni (DSNB), ki mora voditi in koordinirati vse ukrepe za nadzor bolezni;":
        → priloga 7
* ###

Laboratoriji za testiranje

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